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Electoral Markets and Stable States

Peter Mair

in Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295495
eISBN:
9780191599804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295499.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This is the first of three chapters on political party systems and structures of competition, and looks at electoral markets in Europe. It begins by clarifying the term ‘electoral markets’ in the ... More


Lagged Consumer-Resource Dynamics

Kevin S. McCann

in Food Webs (MPB-50)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134178
eISBN:
9781400840687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134178.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the influence of biological lags on consumer–resource dynamics, with particular emphasis on how consumer–resource cycles, or the lack thereof, interact with population level ... More


Consequences to Reefs of Changing Environmental Stress

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

A stable state in a healthy reef is a dynamic equilibrium, maintained by interactions between the different trophic groups and by a balance between growth and erosion from weather and eroding ... More


Four common misconceptions

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter presents a detailed explanation on the common misconceptions that occur when ecologists discuss the characteristics of multiple stable states in the natural ecosystem. These four have ... More


What theory actually tells us about multiple stable states

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter examines the differential equations used for the modeling of ecological process of multiple stable states. The equations quickly reveal what experimentalists can test; thus, the ... More


Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Peter Petraitis

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

One of the most interesting and vexing problems in ecology is how distinctly different communities of plants and animals can occur in the same ecosystem. The theory of these systems, known as ... More


Other modeling approaches

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter examines other modeling approaches developed by ecologists to test the multiple stable states. Most of these approaches tend to fall into one of the two categories: the conceptual ... More


Using temporal and spatial patterns as evidence

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter addresses the problems and issues that arise from trying to infer the existence of multiple stable states from observations of patterns in time and space. Patterns in nature are often ... More


Factions and the Paradox of Aristotelian Practical Science

Eugene Garver

in Aristotle's Politics: Living Well and Living Together

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226284026
eISBN:
9780226284040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226284040.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter discusses the advice provided by Aristotle in Books V and VI on how to make the state stable and secure instead of how it can aim at a good life, and even in opposition to the good life. ... More


Introduction

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This introductory chapter explains how natural ecosystems can appear to be so persistent and susceptible to catastrophic change, such as the replacement of coral reefs with seaweeds; and the ... More


Experimental evidence

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter reviews the different experiments that support the evidence of multiple stable states. Among the thirty-five experiments published between 1980 and 2004 as proof of the multiple stable ... More


Catastrophe theory

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter focuses on the Catastrophe Theory, particularly its standpoint in the well-known conventional views of multiple stable states. It discusses why the theory has been widely used by ... More


Where do we go from here?

Peter Petraitis

in Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199569342
eISBN:
9780191810084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569342.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter explains the reason why experimental tests and modeling cannot provide accurate answers to the issues surrounding multiple stable states. It remains an open question if multiple stable ... More


Food Web Interactions in Freshwater Ecosystems

Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson

in The Biology of Lakes and Ponds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198713593
eISBN:
9780191781902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198713593.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter on food web interactions connects the organisms and their interactions with the abiotic frame and provides a helicopter perspective on the function of freshwater ecosystems. Initially, ... More


Uncertain ecosystems: the conceptual framework

William J. Bond

in Open Ecosystems: ecology and evolution beyond the forest edge

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198812456
eISBN:
9780191850318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812456.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Climate sets the potential biomass of trees and physiologists have made considerable progress in understanding and predicting that potential and applying it in global vegetation models. The problem ... More


Diversity patterns and population regulation

Liz Pásztor, Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Gabriella Magyar, Tamás Czárán, and Géza Meszéna

in Theory-Based Ecology: A Darwinian approach

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199577859
eISBN:
9780191823787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577859.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Mechanisms of abiotic environmental factors influencing basic community properties like standing biomass, productivity, species diversity, structure, fluctuations, persistence, and resilience are ... More


Consequences to reefs of changing environmental stress

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, Graham M. Pilling, and Nicholas A. J. Graham

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198787341
eISBN:
9780191829420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198787341.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

A stable state in a healthy reef is a dynamic equilibrium which is maintained by interactions between different trophic groups and by a balance between growth and erosion, which is caused by weather ... More


Autonomous Sequence Generation in Dynamic Field Theory

Yulia Sandamirskaya

in Dynamic Thinking: A Primer on Dynamic Field Theory

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780199300563
eISBN:
9780190299026
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199300563.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter shows how sequences of stable states may be generated in dynamic field theory (DFT). In previous chapters, the stable states and instabilities of DFT were introduced, most importantly ... More


Fisheries Sustainability

Ray Hilborn and Ulrike Hilborn

in Ocean Recovery: A sustainable future for global fisheries?

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198839767
eISBN:
9780191875533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198839767.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Fisheries Sustainability. Sustainability is defined as the ability of a socio-ecological system to continue to produce benefits to humans, and it has three distinct elements: biological, social, and ... More


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