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Open oceans in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the ecology of open oceans in polar regions. Topics covered include gradients in waters, the plankton, the physiological ecology of polar phytoplankton, the zooplankton, squid, ... More


Basis of the Nerve Impulse

W. Otto Friesen and Jonathon A. Friesen

in NeuroDynamix II: Concepts of Neurophysiology Illustrated by Computer Simulations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195371833
eISBN:
9780199865178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371833.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The rapid conduction of signals by neurons over distances greater than about 1 mm occurs almost exclusively by electrical impulses. This chapter presents the fundamental concepts that underlie the ... More


The cytoskeleton of the squid giant axon

J. Adjaye and P.A.M. Eagles

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter discusses the cytoskeleton of the squid giant axon. The squid giant axon has given invaluable information about the axonal cytoskeleton and has, for decades, provided an unparalleled ... More


Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Alan McComas

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The nerve impulse is the basis of all human thoughts and emotions, and of all sensations and movements. As such, it has been the subject of scientific enquiry for more than two centuries, beginning ... More


John Wilson Moore

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography: Volume 7

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195396133
eISBN:
9780199918409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195396133.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

John Moore initially became known for elucidating the action of tetrodotoxin and other neurotoxins using his innovative sucrose gap method for voltage clamping squid axon. He also was a pioneer in ... More


The Squid Giant Axon

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Gasser takes up the Directorship of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research and appoints the Spaniard, Lorente de Nó, as one of his staff. Lorente, who trained in histology under Cajal, begins ... More


The Giant Axon Impaled

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Influenced partly by William Rushton, Alan Hodgkin, a young Trinity College Fellow, has already demonstrated that there are excitability changes in the nerve membrane even when the impulse is ... More


Sodium Unmasked

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Hodgkin and Huxley publish the full version of their pre-war findings in the squid giant axon. Unaware of an important paper by Overton, they neglect to include an increase in sodium permeability as ... More


The Voltage Clamp

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Now in Chicago, Kenneth Cole employs a negative feedback circuit, devised by a colleague, to clamp the voltage across the membrane of the squid giant axon. He shows that during the action potential ... More


A superconducting artificial atom with two internal degrees of freedom

O. Buisson

in Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 96, July 2011

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199681181
eISBN:
9780191761454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681181.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the construction of a superconducting artificial atom with two internal degrees of freedom by adding a large inductance to a dc-SQUID phase qubit loop, thus decoupling the ... More


Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

N. Joan Abbott, Roddy Williamson, and Linda Maddock (eds)

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

Cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish) are among the most intelligent invertebrates, with highly developed nervous systems that provide excellent model systems for investigating basic questions in ... More


Francis O. Schmitt: At the Intersection of Neuroscience and Squid

Kathryn Maxson Jones

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores the career of neuroscientist Francis O. Schmitt (1903-1995): how his experimental research relied on marine organisms and marine laboratories, and more generally how this ... More


Microscopes and Moving Molecules: The Discovery of Kinesin at the Marine Biological Laboratory

Karl S. Matlin

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

In the late 1970s Nina Strömgren Allen and Robert Day Allen, working at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, discovered a type of video microscopy that enabled them to visually ... More


High-Tc electron-coupled superconductivity: cuprate and iron-based superconductors

E. L. Wolf

in Principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199589494
eISBN:
9780191731334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589494.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents the basic phenomena and concepts of high-Tc superconductivity. The discovery of Bednorz and Muller, families of cuprate superconductors, and their relation to copper oxide ... More


Applications of barrier tunneling phenomena

E. L. Wolf

in Principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199589494
eISBN:
9780191731334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589494.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Barrier tunnelling devices based on the Josephson effect include superconducting quantum interference detectors (SQUID) in conventional and scanning forms. The use of a scanning SQUID detector to ... More


Anaesthetics, Convulsants, And The Squid Axon Membrane

B. M. Hendry

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0108
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

The use of the squid axon as a model system for the study of anaesthetic mechanisms is described. Effects are divided into actions on the voltage-gated Na and K channels and actions on a ... More


Control of the spatial distribution of sodium channels in the squid giant axon and its cell bodies

W. F. Gilly, M. T. Lucero, M. Perri, and J. Rosenthal

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0116
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter summarizes the progress in developing a model system for studying the control of neuronal Na channel distribution based on the squid giant axon and its cell bodies located in the giant ... More


Electrophysiology of squid Schwann cells

N. Joan Abbott, E. R. Brown, Y. Pichon, and Fumio Kukita

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0133
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

Schwann cells are the class of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system associated with axons. The myelin-forming Schwann cells of large-diameter vertebrate axons have a clear physiological ... More


Synaptic transmission in the squid stellate ganglion

R. Llinás and M. Sugimori

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0173
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

Synaptic transmission in the squid stellate ganglion is studied in this chapter. The giant synapse is the last junction in a three-link chain of giant neurons that form the escape system in squid. ... More


Multiple calcium signalling pathways in squid giant presynaptic terminals

George J. Augustine, Joachim Deitmer, Michael Hans, Dieter Swandulla, and Karl Zipser

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0182
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter considers the recent studies that use the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fura-2, to further characterize presynaptic Ca2+ signaling. The fluorescent Ca indicator, fura-2, can be used to ... More


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