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“The joy of hard play”: Competitive Activities for College Women, 1920s–1950s

Martha H. Verbrugge

in Active Bodies: A History of Women’s Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195168792
eISBN:
9780199949649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168792.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century, American History: 19th Century

Chapter 5 presents a comprehensive and innovative analysis of extracurricular sports for undergraduate women between the 1920s and 1950s. Why did some colleges and universities approve high-level ... More


Active Bodies: A History of Women’s Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America

Martha H. Verbrugge

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195168792
eISBN:
9780199949649
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168792.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century, American History: 19th Century

This book examines the philosophies, experiences, and instructional programs of white and black female physical educators who taught in public schools and diverse colleges and universities, including ... More


Women on the Margins of Sports Fandom

Erin C. Tarver

in The I in Team: Sports Fandom and the Reproduction of Identity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226469935
eISBN:
9780226470276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226470276.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter turns to sports fan practices that decenter masculinity to argue that sports fandom need not always reinforce existing social hierarchies. Women’s fan practices—both as fans of ... More


Billie Jean King, Inc.: Womensports, the Women's Sports Foundation, and World Team Tennis

Susan Ware

in Game, Set, Match: Billie Jean King and the Revolution in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834541
eISBN:
9781469603384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877999_ware.6
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses Billie Jean King's first retirement that occurred after winning Wimbledon in 1975. It didn't stick, but she was already devoting increasing time to a variety of business and ... More


Complicating Equal Participation: What Counts as a Sport, Which Sports Should Women Play, and Which Women Should Play Them?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter focuses on Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first examines what counts as a sport for Title IX purposes, with particular emphasis on the ... More


4 Complicating Equal Participation: What Counts as a Sport, Which Sports Should Women Play, and Which Women Should Play Them?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter focuses on Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first examines what counts as a sport for Title IX purposes, with particular emphasis on the ... More


Rules, Rulers, and the “Right Kind” of Competition

Jaime Schultz

in Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038167
eISBN:
9780252095962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038167.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter discusses how women physical educators began to reevaluate their collective position against intercollegiate, commercial, and hypercompetitive sports for their students. Particular ... More


The Three-Part Test and the Opportunity to Play

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first considers the development of the test, whose overall goal is to increase girls' and women's ... More


The Feminist Moment That Wasn't

Susan Ware

in Game, Set, Match: Billie Jean King and the Revolution in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834541
eISBN:
9781469603384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877999_ware.9
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the time when Billie Jean King alerted readers of women-Sports to be on the lookout for “the largest gathering of tomboys and ex-tomboys in recent history.” She wasn't ... More


3 The Three-Part Test and the Opportunity to Play

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first considers the development of the test, whose overall goal is to increase girls' and women's ... More


Separate Is Equal?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines how Title IX strikes a balance between accommodating and minimizing sex differences for purposes of team selection. Title IX's allowance for sex separation in sports has ... More


Game, Set, Match: Billie Jean King and the Revolution in Women's Sports

Susan Ware

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834541
eISBN:
9781469603384
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877999_ware
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

When Billie Jean King trounced Bobby Riggs in tennis's “Battle of the Sexes” in 1973, she placed sports squarely at the center of a national debate about gender equity. In this combination of ... More


1 Separate Is Equal?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines how Title IX strikes a balance between accommodating and minimizing sex differences for purposes of team selection. Title IX's allowance for sex separation in sports has ... More


Sport and Masculinity: The Promise and Limits of Title IX

Deborah L. Brake

in Masculinities and the Law: A Multidimensional Approach

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814764039
eISBN:
9780814764046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814764039.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Family Law

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination in educational institutions that receive federal funds, including in athletic programs. This chapter considers sport's ... More


Treatment as an Equal

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's equal treatment framework and its progress toward equalizing the treatment and benefits given to male and female athletes, along with its limitations. The biggest ... More


6 Treatment as an Equal

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's equal treatment framework and its progress toward equalizing the treatment and benefits given to male and female athletes, along with its limitations. The biggest ... More


The Civil Rights Restoration Act and Enforcement of Title IX

Howard P. Chudacoff

in Changing the Playbook: How Power, Profit, and Politics Transformed College Sports

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252039782
eISBN:
9780252097881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252039782.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter discusses Title IX, the Civil Rights Restoration Act, and gender equity on college sports. The Education Amendments passed by Congress in 1972 included a provision in its Title IX that ... More


A Cultural History of the Sports Bra

Jaime Schultz

in Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038167
eISBN:
9780252095962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038167.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter examines the introduction of the commercial sports bra, one of the products that attested to the 1970s revolution in women's sport. Critics charged that breasts, like menstruation, ... More


Introduction: The Feminism of Title IX

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This book explores the successes and limitations of Title IX—a federal law banning sex discrimination in federally funded education programs—as a vehicle for social change, especially in the area of ... More


Conclusion

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This concluding chapter examines how Title IX has been able to navigate and survive the backlash against it. It shows how women's influx into sports has created prime conditions for backlash by ... More


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