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Conclusion

Roger D. Roger and Miles A. Whittington

in Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195342796
eISBN:
9780199776276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342796.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

networks of neurons can generate collective behavior by either of two different means, which can operate alone or in cooperation. Firstly, there is the well-known classical means of chemical synaptic ... More


Food Security Twists and Turns: Why Food Systems need Complex Governance

Tim Lang and John Ingram

in Addressing Tipping Points for a Precarious Future

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265536
eISBN:
9780191760327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265536.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Tipping points and nudges are favoured metaphors of politicians seeking to make sense of complex topics. Food security is possibly the first major challenge for tipping points, combining the politics ... More


Motoneurones: electrophysiology

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

In the soma-dendrite region of a motoneurone, a spike is succeeded by a long-lasting afterhyperpolarization (AHP), which is important for the characteristics of maintained repetitive spike ... More


Stochastic Simulation of Neurons, Axons, and Action Potentials

A. Aldo Faisal

in Stochastic Methods in Neuroscience

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235070
eISBN:
9780191715778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235070.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, Biostatistics

Variability is inherent in neurons. To account for variability we have to make use of stochastic models. We will take a look at this biologically more rigorous approach by studying the fundamental ... More


Spike Sorting

Partha P. Mitra and Hemant Bokil

in Observed Brain Dynamics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195178081
eISBN:
9780199864829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178081.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The point process component of an extracellular recording results from the spiking activity of neurons in a background of physical and biological noise. When a recording electrode measures action ... More


Dynamics of Motor Cortical Networks: The Complementarity of Spike Synchrony and Firing Rate

Alexa Riehle, Sébastien Roux, Bjørg Elisabeth Kilavik, and Sonja Grün

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The temporal coding hypothesis suggests that not only changes in firing rate but also precise spike timing, especially synchrony, constitute an important part of the representational substrate for ... More


Magnetoencephalography-Based Source Imaging for Epilepsy and Language Localization

Robert C. Knowlton and Lawrence W. Ver Hoef

in Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195342765
eISBN:
9780199863617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342765.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

As long as valid assumptions can be made about a focal source, MEG can transform the challenge of EEG based 2D inference of lateralization or regional localization to 3D sublobar indication of ... More


The Role of Variability in Populations of Spiking Neurons

Brent Doiron

in Stochastic Methods in Neuroscience

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235070
eISBN:
9780191715778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235070.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, Biostatistics

In many brain areas neural response is significantly variable across repeated presentations of a stimulus. Typically, response variability limits coding performance; however we discuss various ... More


Population Density Methods in Large-Scale Neural Network Modelling

Daniel Tranchina

in Stochastic Methods in Neuroscience

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235070
eISBN:
9780191715778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235070.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Biostatistics

Population density methods have a rich history in theoretical and computational neuroscience. In earlier years, these methods were used in large part to study the statistics of spike trains. Starting ... More


Statistical Models of Spike Trains

Liam Paninski, Emery N. Brown, Satish Iyengar, and Robert E. Kass

in Stochastic Methods in Neuroscience

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235070
eISBN:
9780191715778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235070.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Biostatistics

Spiking neurons make inviting targets for analytical methods based on stochastic processes: spike trains carry information in their temporal patterning, yet they are often highly irregular across ... More


Contextual Modulations of Visual Receptive Fields: A Bayesian Perspective

Sophie Denève and Timm Lochmann

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter proposes a normative neural model of visual processing under the assumption that visual spiking neurons optimally detect the presence of independent objects in dynamic visual scenes. ... More


Spiking

Pierluigi Frisco

in Computing with Cells: Advances in Membrane Computing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199542864
eISBN:
9780191715679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542864.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

Spiking neural P systems are the subject of this chapter. They were inspired by a very specific kind of cell: neurons, and their method of operation mimics the functioning of these ... More


Basic neuromuscular properties

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This is a tutorial chapter, mainly aiming to introduce the neuromuscular system. Treated items include basic aspects of skeletal muscle and peripheral axon physiology, principles of sensory and motor ... More


Hydrodynamic stability

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter is devoted to hydrodynamic instabilities. Internal confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions are inherently unstable. In particular, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) developing at ... More


Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Dana H. Ballard

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028615
eISBN:
9780262323819
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028615.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

The vast differences between the brain’s neural circuitry and a computer’s silicon circuitry might suggest that they have nothing in common. In fact, as Dana Ballard argues in this book, ... More


Building Representations with Neurons and Spikes

Cyriel M. A. Pennartz

in The Brain's Representational Power: On Consciousness and the Integration of Modalities

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029315
eISBN:
9780262330121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029315.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter first reviews basic neuroscience elements required for subsequent chapters, such as the structure and function of neurons. It describes how membrane potentials change as a result of the ... More


Neuronal Activity in Motor Cortex and Related Areas

Lee E. Miller and Nicholas Hatsopoulos

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter is organized into six sections. The first four discuss the anatomy and functional roles of the brain areas that are most relevant to the development of brain-computer interface ... More


The Wrapper

Georgius Everhardus Rumphius

in Rumphius' Orchids: Orchid Texts from The Ambonese Herbal

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300098143
eISBN:
9780300129311
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300098143.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Nature

This chapter discusses the different aspects of the Involucrum. It is the third kind of Angraecum terrestre and its leaves resemble those of the first kind, for they are full of ridges and folds, at ... More


Spike Lee

Todd McGowan

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038143
eISBN:
9780252095405
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038143.001.0001
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

Since the release of Do the Right Thing in 1989, Spike Lee has established himself as a cinematic icon. Lee's mostly independent films garner popular audiences while at the same time engaging in ... More


“Ali Likes the Film a Lot. He’s Seen it Six Times”1

Xan Brooks

in Michael Mann Cinema And Television: Interviews, 1980-2012

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780748693542
eISBN:
9781474406451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748693542.003.0010
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter analyses Ali, a film by Michael Mann. Starring Will Smith in the title role, Ali tells the story of the boxer Muhammad Ali, including his capture of the heavyweight title from Sonny ... More


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