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It stands alone

Louis A. Girifalco

in The Universal Force: Gravity - Creator of Worlds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228966
eISBN:
9780191711183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228966.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The theory of relativity is unique and is based on very simple ideas. In fact, it has only one fundamental premise and one physical fact. The premise is that the laws of physics must be the same ... More


Transportation, Communication, Information:: Mass and Speed

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Private transportation was transformed by mass ownership of automobiles while long-distance public transport benefited from new high-speed trains and from affordable flying. Freight transportation ... More


Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Raymond Brun

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The high enthalpy gas flows, associating high velocities, and high temperatures, are the scene of physical and chemical processes such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, ... More


Sound waves

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0031
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes sound waves and shows that these are adiabatic. It derives an expression for the speed of sound in a fluid.


Operations, Productivity, and Technological Change

Terry Gourvish

in British Rail 1974–1997: From Integration to Privatisation

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199250059
eISBN:
9780191719516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250059.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

This chapter discusses the various aspects of British Rail's operations. Topics covered include passenger pricing and marketing, freight pricing and marketing, operating costs and productivity, trade ... More


Investment and the Channel Tunnell

Terry Gourvish

in British Rail 1974–1997: From Integration to Privatisation

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199250059
eISBN:
9780191719516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250059.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

This chapter focuses on railway investments. Topics discussed include investment promotion, reduced investment spending in 1990, the need for project management and procurement, and investments on ... More


Control of Locomotion: Lessons from Whole-body Biomechanical Analysis

Boris I. Prilutsky and Alexander N. Klishko

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Biomechanical analysis of whole-body locomotion in different conditions is a unique tool for exploring the effects of environmental demands on movement control. This chapter reviews data from the ... More


Aerial Navigation and Optic Flow SensingA Biorobotic Approach

Nicolas Franceschini, Franck Ruffier, and Julien Serres

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter addresses some of the control problems involved in an animal's visually guided three-dimensional piloting. It formulates explicit control schemes that explain how insects may navigate ... More


Muscle unit properties and specializations

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter deals with the functional properties of the main targets of spinal alpha motoneurones: the fibres they innervate and command in skeletal muscles. Normally each skeletal muscle fibre is ... More


Depth constancies

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0026
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Information about the distance and depth of an object interacts with information about other features of an object. Depth constancies are one manifestation of this interaction. Perceptual constancy ... More


Wave propagation

Mauro Fabrizio and Morro Angelo

in Electromagnetism of Continuous Media: Mathematical Modelling and Applications

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527008
eISBN:
9780191713316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527008.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This chapter investigates some aspects of wave propagation with a major focus on the effects of linear constitutive properties (functions or functionals). A detailed analysis of time-harmonic waves ... More


Simple Reaction Times: Basic Data

R. Duncan Luce

in Response Times: Their Role in Inferring Elementary Mental Organization

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195070019
eISBN:
9780199869879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195070019.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter discusses the simple reaction-time paradigm. Topics covered include the effect of signal properties on reaction time, effect of foreperiod on reaction time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff, ... More


Two-Choice Reaction Times: Basic Ideas and Data

R. Duncan Luce

in Response Times: Their Role in Inferring Elementary Mental Organization

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195070019
eISBN:
9780199869879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195070019.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter begins with a discussion of choice-reaction times and simple-reaction times. It then discusses a conceptual scheme for tradeoffs, discriminability and accuracy, speed-accuracy tradeoff, ... More


In-house macromolecular data collection

Mark R. Sanderson

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

In the field of macromolecular crystallography, a renaissance occurred in data collection with the advent of two-dimensional area detectors. These rapidly superseded film cameras and diffractometers ... More


Bird flight modes

John J. Videler

in Avian Flight

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299928
eISBN:
9780191714924
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299928.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

Birds are pilot and aircraft in one. Experiments using kestrels kept as falconry birds and flown under controlled conditions indoors to investigate flight strategies are discussed. The effects of ... More


The Relationship Between Cognitive Styles and Intellectual Functioning

K. Warner Schaie

in Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence: The Seattle longitudinal study

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156737
eISBN:
9780199786817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156737.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents evidence on the distinctiveness of cognitive styles of motor-cognitive flexibility, attitudinal flexibility, and psychomotor speed from the domain of psychometric intelligence ... More


Idioms From Metaphors to “Just Long Words”?

Sam Glucksberg

in Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphor to Idioms

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195111095
eISBN:
9780199872107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195111095.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Are idioms just long words or do they share syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties with language in general? Four classes of idioms are identified: (1) non-compositional/opaque, which cannot ... More


Wisdom from the ages: Slowing of speed of information processing is cognitive ageing!?

Ian J. Deary

in Looking Down on Human Intelligence: From Psychometrics to the Brain

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198524175
eISBN:
9780191712531
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524175.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes and criticizes research on ageing and intelligence differences, with a focus on the concept of mental speed.


Voices Carry: Film and Telepathy

Ned Schantz

in Gossip, Letters, Phones: The Scandal of Female Networks in Film and Literature

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195335910
eISBN:
9780199868902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335910.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies, Women's Literature

This chapter pursues the problem of coincidence on the telephone in its greatest cinematic example—Sorry, Wrong Number—all the way to the ambivalent dream of telepathy, a major fantasy of novelistic ... More


VISUAL SELECTION, COVERT ATTENTION AND EYE MOVEMENTS

John M. Findlay

in Active Vision: The Psychology of Looking and Seeing

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198524793
eISBN:
9780191711817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524793.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews work on visual attention. Attention is the process by which some objects or locations are selected to receive more processing than others. Two types of attention are discussed: ... More


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