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Resurrecting Biological Essentialism *

Michael Devitt

in Putting Metaphysics First: Essays on Metaphysics and Epistemology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199280803
eISBN:
9780191723254
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280803.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter defends the doctrine that Linnaean taxa, including species, have essences that are, at least partly, underlying intrinsic, mostly genetic, properties. The consensus among philosophers of ... More


Fluid genomes, uncertain species, and the genetics of crop domestication

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter reviews new research findings that are changing our ideas of the nature of genomes and of biological species. All genomes, from bacteria to humans, are constantly changing with DNA being ... More


The role of species concepts

Michael L. Arnold

in Evolution through Genetic Exchange

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199229031
eISBN:
9780191728266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229031.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter introduces the topic of species concepts and the study of genetic exchange. It uses only four (biological, phylogenetic, cohesion, and prokaryotic) of the many definitions to illustrate ... More


The past is another country: is evidence for prehistoric, historical, and present-day extinction really comparable?

Samuel T. Turvey and Joanne H. Cooper

in Holocene Extinctions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199535095
eISBN:
9780191715754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535095.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Our understanding of Late Quaternary ecosystems and the timing and causation of prehistoric extinctions is based almost entirely on studies of the recent fossil record. However, palaeontological and ... More


Studying Species in the Fossil Record: A Review and Recommendations for a More Unified Approach

Warren D. Allmon

in Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226377445
eISBN:
9780226377582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226377582.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology: Biology

The theoretical literature on species and speciation is often viewed as chaotic and/or useless, and the situation in paleontology has frequently seemed, if anything, even murkier. Despite this, there ... More


Species Concepts and Natural Goodness

Judith K. Crane and Ronald Sandler

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter defends a pluralist understanding of species on which a normative species concept is viable and can support natural goodness evaluations. The central question here is thus: Since ... More


The Species Problem: Concepts, Conflicts, and Patterns Preserved in the Fossil Record

William Miller

in Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226377445
eISBN:
9780226377582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226377582.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology: Biology

There is a growing consensus around the lineage species concept, and paleontologists can provide the temporal perspective that this view of species requires. The “species problem” involves more than ... More


Similarity and Species Concepts

Jason G. Rheins

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents a theory of species referred to as “kind-conceptions” of species that understands species as kinds or concepts. This usage does not suggest that an individual can ever be a ... More


The Synthesis and Species

John S. Wilkins

in Species: A History of the Idea

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520260856
eISBN:
9780520945074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520260856.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the beginnings of the modern synthesis and modern species debate. Ronald A. Fisher is famous as the founder of the modern synthesis between Mendelian genetics and Darwinian ... More


Natural Kinds and Biological Realisms

Michael Devitt

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses issues regarding realism, specifically the realism issues in biology. The discussion starts with an issue that arises from the debate between “species monists” who argue that ... More


Genetics and genomics of speciation

Glenn-Peter Sætre and Mark Ravinet

in Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts, Analysis, and Practice

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198830917
eISBN:
9780191868993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830917.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

The diversity of life on Earth is something that has long fascinated biologists. When we inspect all this variation, two striking patterns emerge. First, organisms appear as if they have almost been ... More


Species: A Modest Proposal

Maclaurin James and Sterelny Kim

in What Is Biodiversity?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226500805
eISBN:
9780226500829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226500829.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter begins by noting two striking facts. First, in practice, most explicit attempts to estimate biodiversity are attempts to estimate species richness. Second, evolutionary theory has been ... More


Is the taxonomy appropriate? Delineating species for conservation purposes

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The first step in conservation management is to delineate groups for separate versus combined management. However, there are many problems with species delineation, including diverse species ... More


Genetic exchange and species concepts

Michael L. Arnold

in Divergence with Genetic Exchange

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198726029
eISBN:
9780191792960
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726029.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Though the descriptions of genetic exchange highlighted in this text are independent of species concepts, most studies of natural hybridization, hybrid speciation, and horizontal gene transfer (i.e. ... More


Species: Concepts, Recognition, and Analytical Problems

Andrew V. Z. Brower and Randall T. Schuh

in Biological Systematics: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781501752773
eISBN:
9781501752797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501752773.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter studies the systematists' perspective on species concepts and the role of species in systematics. No matter how sophisticated the tools and methods enhancing the conceptualization of ... More


Mitonuclear speciation

Geoffrey E. Hill

in Mitonuclear Ecology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198818250
eISBN:
9780191859465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198818250.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Current models of speciation assume that species arise when nuclear genotypes diverge following the disruption of gene flow between populations. This chapter explores the idea that speciation is ... More


Appropriate delineation of species for conservation purposes

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in A Practical Guide for Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198783411
eISBN:
9780191826337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783411.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The first step in conservation management is to delineate groups for separate versus combined management. However, there are many problems with species delineation, including diverse species ... More


Species concepts and conservation

Colin Groves

in An Introduction to Primate Conservation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198703389
eISBN:
9780191824067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703389.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) has come to be increasingly adopted in primatology, as in many other branches of vertebrate zoology. It has been objected that, with the increase in the number ... More


The Checkered Career of Hierarchical Thinking in Evolutionary Biology

Niles Eldredge

in Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226426051
eISBN:
9780226426198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426198.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This article reconstructs the history and significance of hierarchical thinking in evolutionary theory, suggesting further development of hierarchical approaches in evolutionary biology. Darwin’s ... More


Conservation Biology and Parasitism

Johannes Foufopoulos, Gary A. Wobeser, and Hamish McCallum

in Infectious Disease Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
April 2022
ISBN:
9780199583508
eISBN:
9780191867019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199583508.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Disease ecology and conservation biology are two disciplines that, despite their apparent differences, are directly relevant to each other. Biological diversity—the focus of the discipline of ... More


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