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Rainforest Realism and the Unity of Science

James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, and John Collier

in Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199276196
eISBN:
9780191706127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199276196.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter consolidates the constraints on metaphysics as a unification of science by requiring that a metaphysical hypothesis respect the constraint of the principle of naturalistic closure (PNC). ... More


Causation in a Structural World

James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, and John Collier

in Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199276196
eISBN:
9780191706127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199276196.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that the idea of causation has similar status to ideas of cohesion, forces, and things. Appreciating the role of causation in a notional world is crucial to understanding the ... More


Conclusion—Philosophy Enough

James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, and John Collier

in Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199276196
eISBN:
9780191706127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199276196.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This conclusion criticizes Daniel Dennett for dividing reality into first-class illata and second-class abstracta, and argues that fundamental physics directly studies extra-representational real ... More


Can Any Sciences Be Special?

David Papineau

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The viability of non‐reductive physicalism has been extensively discussed over the last half‐century. Most of the debate has focused on whether there are any non‐reduced causes. However, there has ... More


Can Any Sciences be Special? Comments on Papineau

Michael Esfeld

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter seeks to develop Papineau's argument further in the direction of a reductive but conservative physicalism that sets out to vindicate the scientific quality of the special sciences by ... More


Why There Are No Laws in the Special Sciences: Three Arguments

Jaegwon Kim

in Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

“Why There Are No Laws in the Special Sciences: Three Arguments” offers three arguments explaining why there are no laws, or “strict” laws, in the special sciences. The first of the arguments begins ... More


Why There Is Anything Except Physics *

Barry Loewer

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter first discusses a tension in Fodor's treatment of special sciences. It argues that, on Fodor's account, special science counterfactuals are necessitated by fundamental physical laws and ... More


The Causal Autonomy of the Special Sciences

Peter Menzies and Christian List

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The systems studied in the special sciences are often said to be causally autonomous, in the sense that their higher‐level properties have causal powers that are independent of those of their more ... More


Reduction, Kinds, and Essences

John Heil

in The Universe As We Find It

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199596201
eISBN:
9780191741876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596201.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

The concept of reduction is discussed in the context of a discussion of the origins of ‘non-reductive physicalism’. Reduction is identified as a relation among terms, or predicates, or theories, not ... More


Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Jaegwon Kim

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book is a collection of 14 essays; 11 of these have been previously published and three are new. All but one of them have been written since 1993 when my essay collection Supervenience and Mind ... More


Philosophical Models of Reduction

Robert W. Batterman

in The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction, and Emergence

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146479
eISBN:
9780199833078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146476.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins with a discussion of Nagelian and neo‐Nagelian models of reduction. It also considers the multiple realizability argument against reduction of the special sciences and argues that ... More


The Ontological Turn

John Heil

in The Universe As We Find It

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199596201
eISBN:
9780191741876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596201.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

This chapter is a summary of conclusions reached in preceding chapters. The fundamental things, or perhaps arrangements of the fundamental things, serve as truthmakers for all the truths that have ... More


Reduction in Real Life *

Peter Godfrey‐Smith

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter identifies and criticizes assumptions about reductive explanation that are common in philosophy of mind. It argues that there is a serious disconnect between the picture of reduction ... More


The Past Histories of Molecules

Craig Callender

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter unfolds a central philosophical problem of statistical mechanics. This problem lies in a clash between the Static Probabilities offered by statistical mechanics and the Dynamic ... More


Recent Logical Inquiries and Their Psychological Bearings

John J. McDermott (ed.)

in The Basic Writings of Josiah Royce, Volume II: Logic, Loyalty, and Community

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780823224845
eISBN:
9780823284894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823224845.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, American Philosophy

This introductory chapter discusses recent logical inquiries and their psychological bearings. These logical inquiries refer to two decidedly distinct classes of researches, both of which are ... More


Special Sciences (Or: The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis)

Jerry Fodor

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the confusion regarding the “unity of science.” What has traditionally been called “the unity of science” is a much stronger, and much less plausible, thesis than the generality ... More


The Rise and Fall of British Emergentism

Brian P. McLaughlin

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the special sciences found in the texts of a tradition known as “British Emergentism,” which is still evident in the works of current authors, including those of noted ... More


A Counterfactual Theory of Causal Explanation

James Woodward

in Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195155273
eISBN:
9780199835089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195155270.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This sets out my positive account of causal explanation. According to this account, successful explanations must answer what-if-things-had-been-different questions: they must cite conditions such ... More


First Methodological Interlude: Special Sciences and Evidence

Jody Azzouni

in Semantic Perception: How the Illusion of a Common Language Arises and Persists

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199967407
eISBN:
9780199346066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199967407.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter steps back to survey the broader implications of earlier discussions. It’s argued that phenomenological notions are crucial evidence for semantic and pragmatic theories, and for theories ... More


Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199396412
eISBN:
9780199396436
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396412.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Lawyers often work pro bono to liberate death-row inmates from flawed legal verdicts that otherwise would kill them. This is the first book on practical philosophy of science, how to practically ... More


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