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Limits of stereoscopic vision

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews methods for measuring stereoacuity and the factors that influence it. Topics covered include tests of stereoscopic vision, stereoacuity-basic concepts, the upper disparity limit; ... More


A Framework for the Design of Plant Diversity Studies

Thomas J. Stohlgren

in Measuring Plant Diversity: Lessons from the Field

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172331
eISBN:
9780199790395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172331.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter suggests an experimental approach to vegetation sampling in general, and to plant diversity sampling in particular. It is assumed that most available sampling techniques are like ... More


Increasing spatio-temporal scales: metacommunity ecology

Jonathan M. Chase and Janne Bengtsson

in Community Ecology: Processes, Models, and Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199228973
eISBN:
9780191711169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228973.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

A metacommunity consists of several local communities connected by dispersal. A metacommunity perspective helps to synthesize community ecology across spatial scales, and provides insights into the ... More


Scaling Issues in Landscape Ecology

Kimberly A. With

in Essentials of Landscape Ecology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198838388
eISBN:
9780191874697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838388.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Spatial patterns are ubiquitous in nature, and ecological systems exhibit patchiness (heterogeneity) across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Landscape ecology is explicitly concerned with ... More


Patterns of Biodiversity at Fine and Small Spatial Scales

Matty P. Berg

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The biodiversity in fertile soil is mind-boggling. How can a large collection of species that potentially competes for the same resources coexist on a small spatial scale from a few centimetres to a ... More


Diagnostic Use of Scale Information for Componential and Holistic Recognition

Philippe G. Schyns and Frédéric Gosselin

in Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes: Analytic and Holistic Processes

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195313659
eISBN:
9780199848058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313659.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines how information at different spatial scales—coarse versus fine—in a single system is used for various judgments regarding faces (e.g., discriminating between two different ... More


Linking ecosystem and parasite ecology

Michel Loreau, Jacques Roy, and David Tilman

in Parasitism and Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529873
eISBN:
9780191712777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529873.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Community ecology and ecosystem ecology provide different perspectives on ecological systems, and have followed increasingly divergent pathways for decades. Recent theoretical and experimental work ... More


Community Invasibility: Spatial Heterogeneity, Spatial Scale, and Productivity

Kendi F. Davies

in Serpentine: The Evolution and Ecology of a Model System

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520268357
eISBN:
9780520948457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520268357.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Invasive species are one of the most significant threats to native species diversity, and identifying the factors that make places more or less invasible has been one of the most important issues in ... More


Spatial patterns

Lawrence R. Walker

in The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575299
eISBN:
9780191774836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575299.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Disturbances contribute to the number and variety of spatial patterns at many scales and disturbance effects are best considered at a particular scale and for specific types of heterogeneity. ... More


Phylogenetic Diversity across Space and Time

Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

in Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691157689
eISBN:
9781400881192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines how phylogenetic diversity changes across spatial and temporal gradients. Spatial ecophylogenetic patterns can reveal how different processes shape ecological communities. ... More


Spatial Scaling I: Relevance and Conceptual Importance

Ralph B. Taylor

in Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814725498
eISBN:
9780814708033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter is the first of three examining spatial scaling and its metatheoretical implications. Spatial scaling, generally, considers how thinking about relevant theoretical processes depends—or ... More


Perceptual Constraints on Implicit Memory for Visual Features: Statistical Learning in Human Infants

Richard N. Aslin

in Infant Perception and Cognition: Recent Advances, Emerging Theories, and Future Directions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195366709
eISBN:
9780199863969
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Vision

Younger and Cohen established a “statistical” approach to visual category formation by asking whether infants are sensitive to the correlations among features in five-feature objects. Their results ... More


Spatial Scaling II: Metatheorizing about Community-Crime Linkages

Ralph B. Taylor

in Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814725498
eISBN:
9780814708033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter discusses the spatial version of the Boudon-Coleman “boat” metamodel, which is used as a vehicle for metatheorizing about community criminology. The elaborated boat metamodel will be ... More


The Sources of Underdetermination

Charles Perreault

in The Quality of the Archaeological Record

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226630823
eISBN:
9780226631011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226631011.003.0002
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

A theory that describes the pathways by which processes can be archaeologically equifinal is developed. There are four aspects of the quality of any set of empirical data: scope, sampling interval, ... More


The maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE)

John Harte

in Maximum Entropy and Ecology: A Theory of Abundance, Distribution, and Energetics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199593415
eISBN:
9780191774614
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593415.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter presents METE, a comprehensive, parsimonious, and testable theory of the distribution, abundance, and energetics of species across spatial scales. It develops the structure and ... More


Spatial Scaling III: Understanding Place Criminology and Hot Spots

Ralph B. Taylor

in Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814725498
eISBN:
9780814708033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter uses the modified boat metamodel from Chapter 4 as a lens for examining the assumptions behind the “criminology of place.” The view here is that place criminology is useful for tertiary ... More


Animals as Natural Geometers

Giorgio Vallortigara

in Cognitive Biology: Evolutionary and Developmental Perspectives on Mind, Brain, and Behavior

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012935
eISBN:
9780262255264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012935.003.0081
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses how animals deal with natural geometry, particularly on spatial reorientation mechanisms. It examines the ability of animals, such as birds and fish, to integrate landmark and ... More


Overview

Ralph B. Taylor

in Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814725498
eISBN:
9780814708033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter begins by discussing criminological scholars' concerns about the lack of integration across levels of theorizing, i.e. the failure of criminological theory to understand the connections ... More


Temporal Scaling II: A Temporally Dynamic Metamodel

Ralph B. Taylor

in Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814725498
eISBN:
9780814708033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter first discusses correspondences between temporal and spatial scaling. Two main parallels are noted. At the very least, concepts of durational ambiguity and time horizon suggest a ... More


The geography of ecological speciation

Patrik Nosil

in Ecological Speciation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199587100
eISBN:
9780191810107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199587100.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the geographic component of ecological speciation. It begins by giving different definitions of the geography of speciation and then studies the effects of geography on the ... More


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