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Introduction

Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Timothy P. Robinson, Mark Stevenson, Kim B. Stevens, David J. Rogers, and Archie C. A. Clements

in Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198509882
eISBN:
9780191709128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509882.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This introductory chapter discusses spatial epidemiological analyses. It presents the framework of spatial analysis and describes scientific literature and conferences, available software, and ... More


Clustering, cluster detection, and spatial variation in risk

J. C. Wakefield, J. E. Kelsall, and S. E. Morris

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses issues relating to, and reviews methods proposed for, cluster detection and clustering. The chapter proceeds as follows. Section 8.2 reviews of methods proposed for assessing ... More


Bias and confounding in spatial epidemiology

P. Elliott and J. C. Wakefield

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses some of the issues affecting the interpretation of spatial epidemiological studies. It separates the two concepts of bias and confounding. In general, bias and confounding are ... More


Statistical Methods in Spatial Epidemiology

Samson Y. Gebreab

in Neighborhoods and Health

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780190843496
eISBN:
9780190843533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190843496.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Most studies evaluating relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health neglect to examine and account for the spatial dependency across neighborhoods, that is, how neighboring areas ... More


Overview of statistical methods for disease mapping and its relationship to cluster detection

P. J Diggle

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes a theoretical framework for the analysis of spatial variation in disease risk, within which different formats of epidemiological data give rise to different statistical ... More


Ecological correlation studies

S. Richardson and C. Monfort

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews some current issues relating to studies commonly known as ‘ecological studies’, with particular reference to the context of geographical epidemiology. The chapter proceeds as ... More


Combining models of health and exposure data: the SAVIAH study

N. G. Best, K. Ickstadt, R. L. Wolpert, and D. J. Briggs

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0022
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes a regression-based approach to air pollution mapping, developed as part of the European Union-funded SAVIAH (Small-Area Variations In Air Quality and Health) project. The ... More


Bayesian approaches to disease mapping

J. C. Wakefield, N. G. Best, and L. Waller

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the underlying assumptions of Bayesian methods for disease mapping and discusses mathematical details. The chapter proceeds as follows. Section 7.2 describes a three-state ... More


Investigating the genetic association between diabetes and malaria: an application of Bayesian ecological regression models with errors in covariates

L. Bernardinelli, C. Pascutto, C. Montomoli, and W. Gilks

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes a Bayesian hierarchical model and applies it to a new dataset on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) prevalence among 18-year-old males born in Sardinia between 1936 and ... More


Do cancers cluster?

F. E. Alexander and P. Boyle

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the issue of cancer clustering with particular reference to childhood leukaemia. Clustering is a poorly defined concept in medical literature. A distinction must be made ... More


Water quality and health

M. Kanarek

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0024
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the association between drinking water quality and health. It considers pollutants that have been linked to cancer mortality and incidence, including asbestos, arsenic, ... More


Exposure assessment

D. J. Briggs

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews different exposure assessment methods. It argues that there is no single or optimal method for defining and assessing exposures. Much depends on the scientific circumstances of ... More


Geographical analysis of communicable disease data

P. Atkinson and A. Molesworth

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents methods to map and analyze communicable disease data. It discusses their limitations and proposes possible solutions or alternative approaches to minimize some of these ... More


Personal exposure monitoring in environmental epidemiology

M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exposure to any pollutant is determined by the concentration of the pollutant in the environment, its specific character, and the duration and frequency of contact. Estimates of these ... More


Disease mapping: a historical perspective

S. D. Walter

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the history of disease mapping over the past two hundred years. Topics discussed include the early development of cartography, disease maps in the 19th century, disease maps from ... More


Bayesian mapping of Hodgkin’s disease in France

A. Mollié

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a case study mapping mortality rates for Hodgkin's disease in French departments. It illustrates and compares various methods for estimating rates for rare diseases. Some ... More


The role of geographical studies in risk assessment

L. Järup

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0023
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter evaluates the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in risk assessment. It shows that the use of GIS at all stages of the risk assessment process has both strengths and ... More


Geographical variations in childhood leukaemia incidence

J. F. Bithell and T. J. Vincent

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines geographical variations in the incidence of childhood leukaemia. It shows there is more variation of incidence at the international level than at smaller geographical scales of ... More


Mapping mortality data in the United States

L. W. Pickle

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the advantages of and disadvantages of mapping mortality data, methods used in producing mortality atlas, and recent research suggesting improvements in map design that can ... More


Climate change and human health: mapping and modelling potential impacts

A. J. McMichael, P. Martens, R. S. Kovats, and S. Lele

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0025
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the methods used to describe and forecast the health impacts of climate change. It considers the research methods applicable to assessing the potential impacts of climate ... More


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