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Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Robert W. Proctor and E.J. Capaldi

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

This book attempts to describe the influence of psychological processes on the creation of science. Although implicit processes have attracted some attention, most prior work in this area has ... More


A Plea for Science Studies A Plea for Science Studies Philip Kitcher

Philip Kitcher

in A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195117257
eISBN:
9780199785995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195117255.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This essay contrasts two views of science that are popular in Science Studies: the realist-rationalist approach, and the socio-historical perspective, and calls for an integration of the best ... More


Social Constructivism

Ilkka Niiniluoto

in Critical Scientific Realism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251612
eISBN:
9780191598098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251614.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Philosophers of science should take seriously the fact, emphasized already by Peirce and Popper, that scientific knowledge is a product of the scientific community. The ontological and ... More


What the Social Text Affair Does and Does Not Prove What the Social Text Affair Does and Does Not Prove Alan D. Sokal

Alan D. Sokal

in A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195117257
eISBN:
9780199785995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195117255.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This essay analyzes what Social Text’s publication of a parody of the author’s article does and does not prove about the prevailing intellectual standards in the cultural studies of science. It ... More


Introduction

in Sociological Beginnings: The First Conference of the German Society for Sociology

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780853237990
eISBN:
9781781380734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853237990.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

The introduction looks at the emergence of sociology and presents a brief biography of the five main key speakers whose works are collected in this book to trace their relevance in how the science of ... More


 A Bouquet of Scientific Values

Noretta Koertge

in Scientific Values and Civic Virtues

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195172256
eISBN:
9780199835546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195172256.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter reviews the attempts of sociologists of science such as Parsons and Merton, and philosophers of science such as Kuhn, Lakatos, and Popper, to characterize the norms that guide the ... More


From ‘Science and Religion’ to ‘Transcendence in Science’, or: What We Can Learn from the (History of) Science and Technology Studies

Silke Gülker

in Science, Belief and Society: International Perspectives on Religion, Non-Religion and the Public Understanding of Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781529206944
eISBN:
9781529206951
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529206944.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Sociology of Religion

This chapter begins by identifying an imbalance in the sociology of science and technology. Across sociology, hardly anyone would object to the idea that science is a social process. Science and ... More


Uncertain Science and the Fight for Environmental Health

Alissa Cordner

in Toxic Safety: "Flame Retardants, Chemical Controversies, and Environmental Health"

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780231171465
eISBN:
9780231541381
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171465.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

The Introduction describes the contested arena of environmental health controversies, and summarizing the existing social science literature on environmental risks and scientific uncertainty


Science and Sociology of Science: Beyond War and Peace

Jean Bricmont and Alan Sokal

in The One Culture?: A Conversation about Science

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226467221
eISBN:
9780226467245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226467245.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter aims to disentangle various confusions caused by fashionable ideas in the contemporary philosophy of science. Roughly speaking, the main thesis is that those ideas contain a kernel of ... More


From Social Construction to Questions for Research: The Promise of the Sociology of Science

Kenneth G. Wilson

Constance K. Barsky (ed.)

in The One Culture?: A Conversation about Science

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226467221
eISBN:
9780226467245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226467245.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the issue of cultural specificity and social construction in detail. What really matters is to identify root causes for the eruption of controversy about social construction. ... More


Introduction: The Promise, Pitfalls, and Practicalities of Comparative Ethnography

Corey M. Abramson and Neil Gong

in Beyond the Case: The Logics and Practices of Comparative Ethnography

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780190608484
eISBN:
9780190608521
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190608484.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

This introductory chapter examines the methodological and practical challenges that comparative ethnographers face. It begins by discussing both the promises and potential pitfalls of comparative ... More


Scientific Method as Cultural Innovation

Robert N. McCauley

in Cultural Evolution: Society, Technology, Language, and Religion

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262019750
eISBN:
9780262318297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019750.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Consideration of scientific method as a cultural innovation requires examining the philosophy and sociology of science, anthropology, developmental, cognitive, and social psychology as well as the ... More


Toxic Safety: "Flame Retardants, Chemical Controversies, and Environmental Health"

Alissa Cordner

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780231171465
eISBN:
9780231541381
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171465.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

Initially marketed as a life-saving advancement, flame retardants are now mired in controversy. Some argue that data show the chemicals are unsafe while others continue to support their use. The ... More


“Broken Pieces of Fact”

Alex Csiszar

in The Scientific Journal: Authorship and the Politics of Knowledge in the Nineteenth Century

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226553238
eISBN:
9780226553375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226553375.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Writing the history of the scientific journal presents several methodological problems. In part this is because the category includes a vast and varied collection of objects, but it is also because ... More


The Future Science of Experiment Planning

Alcino J. Silva, Anthony Landreth, and John Bickle

in Engineering the Next Revolution in Neuroscience: The New Science of Experiment Planning

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199731756
eISBN:
9780199367658
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731756.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Techniques

Science and its products play a central role in the culture and economics of modern societies, but very little has been done to develop systematic, objective studies of science and its practises. ... More


Science Studies as Epistemography Peter Dear

Peter Dear

in The One Culture?: A Conversation about Science

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226467221
eISBN:
9780226467245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226467245.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The ambiguities of the catch-all label “science studies” are not accidental: such crypto-disciplinary names tend to be hobbled from the start by the need to draw in as many constituencies as ... More


Introduction: The Culture of Spectacle

Al Coppola

in The Theater of Experiment: Staging Natural Philosophy in Eighteenth-Century Britain

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780190269715
eISBN:
9780190269739
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190269715.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature, Drama

This project offers a fresh perspective on a familiar thread of anti-modern discourse that runs through Enlightenment culture. Plays that satirized experimental philosophy offered critiques of the ... More


A Martian Sends a Postcard Home

Harry Collins

in The One Culture?: A Conversation about Science

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226467221
eISBN:
9780226467245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226467245.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The opening poem in this chapter describes a Martian's view of earthly things seen for the first time; it is a stranger's view. There has to be something strange about the sociologist's view of ... More


Moral Entanglements: Conserving Birds in Britain and Germany

Stefan Bargheer

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226376639
eISBN:
9780226543963
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226543963.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Culture

At the center of Stefan Bargheer’s account of bird watching, field ornithology, and nature conservation in Britain and Germany stands the question how values change over time and how individuals ... More


Science and Morals

Eric T. Freyfogle

in Our Oldest Task: Making Sense of Our Place in Nature

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226326399
eISBN:
9780226326429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226326429.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter explores two related issues: science and what it is and is not, and the sources of moral values and other normative standards that we might use to evaluate nature and our changes to it. ... More


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