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Utilitarianism

Ken Binmore

in Natural Justice

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195178111
eISBN:
9780199783670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178111.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

If some external enforcement agency compels us to honor deals reached in the original position, then Harsanyi has shown that the outcome will be utilitarian. Under the same hypotheses, Rawls claims ... More


Evolution Evolution

Mike Hansell

in Animal Architecture

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198507529
eISBN:
9780191709838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507529.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter begins by assessing what evidence the structure of a building provides on a builder's evolutionary past. It then examines the influence that animal built structures exert on the ... More


The Failure of Discourse Ethics and the Theory of Communicative Action in Their Attempted Empirical Demonstration and Application to Politics, Law and Society

Uwe Steinhoff

in The Philosophy of Jürgen Habermas: A Critical Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547807
eISBN:
9780191720758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547807.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

The chapter provides a detailed description and critical discussion of Habermas' attempts to make the theory of communicative action and discourse ethics fruitful beyond the narrower moral and ... More


Heritability, Maximization, and Evolutionary Explanations

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines which of the equivalent alternative partitions of fitness, including inclusive fitness and group fitness, can be interpreted as being subject to natural selection in a ... More


Pleasure and Social Utility: The Virtues of Being Epicurean

A. A. Long

in From Epicurus to Epictetus: Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199279128
eISBN:
9780191706769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279128.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

The Epicurean explanation for the origin of community life and laws was the utility of these institutions in facilitating people's natural and necessary desires for a secure life. In advising his ... More


Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

James A.R. Marshall

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. ... More


Evidence, Other Approaches, and Further Topics

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book has examined the genesis, the logic, and the generality of social evolution theory. In particular, it has presented evolutionary explanations of the many social behaviors we observe in the ... More


Motherhood and the Ascent of Man

Thomas Dixon

in The Invention of Altruism: Making Moral Meanings in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264263
eISBN:
9780191734816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264263.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

This chapter looks at three different ways that evolutionary science developed from the 1880s onwards to give rise to some quite different visions of altruism—including those which featured in two of ... More


Nature, Evolution and Society: The Idealists as Social Evolutionists

Sandra M. Den Otter

in British Idealism and Social Explanation: A Study in Late Victorian Thought

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206002
eISBN:
9780191676901
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206002.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Ideas

This chapter offers an insight into the most extraordinarily influential late 19th-century doctrine, social evolution. Beginning with a discussion of Ritchie's interpretation of Darwinism and ... More


In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought

Carl N. Degler

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195077070
eISBN:
9780199853991
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195077070.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

Giving an historical perspective on the changes in scientific thought over the last 100 years, this book explores the study of social evolution and the ongoing search for human nature. The book ... More


Communication in bacteria

Stephen P. Diggle, Stuart A. West, Andy Gardner, and Ashleigh S. Griffin

in Sociobiology of Communication: an interdisciplinary perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199216840
eISBN:
9780191712043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216840.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The term quorum sensing (QS) is used to describe communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible signal molecules. QS has not only been ... More


Victorian Social Science: From Singular to Plural*

Lawrence Goldman

in The Organisation of Knowledge in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263266
eISBN:
9780191734854
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263266.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter provides an overview of the history of social science in Britain and the ways in which it was institutionalised in the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social science was the ... More


Emergence in Social Evolution: A Great Ape Example

Barbara Smuts

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter uses the evolution of bonobo society, and specifically how it came to develop some radical differences from chimpanzee society, to illustrate the role of emergence in social evolution. ... More


Gene–Culture Coevolution and the Evolution of Social Institutions

Robert Boyd and Peter J. Richerson

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Social institutions are the laws, informal rules, and conventions that give durable structure to social interactions within a population. Such institutions are typically not designed consciously, are ... More


The Social Evolution of International Politics

Shiping Tang

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199658336
eISBN:
9780191756054
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658336.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Deploying an original “Social Evolution Paradigm (SEP)” and drawing from archaeology, anthropology, evolutionary biology, and international relations, this book advances a sweeping account for the ... More


From Biological Evolution to Social Evolution

Shiping Tang

in The Social Evolution of International Politics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199658336
eISBN:
9780191756054
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658336.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter summarizes a more detailed discussion on what social evolution is as a phenomenon and as a paradigm developed elsewhere (Tang 2014-15). It also provides a brief critique of some of the ... More


Back

Jeffrey Burton Russell

in Paradise Mislaid: How We Lost Heaven and How We Can Regain It

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195334586
eISBN:
9780199851423
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334586.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

Paradise had always been a state of being to which one could look back, regain, as well as look forward to. Heaven was a return to the harmony and happiness enjoyed by humans before original sin. But ... More


Planet of the Durkheimians, Where Community, Authority, and Sacredness Are Foundations of Morality

Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham

in Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195320916
eISBN:
9780199869541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320916.003.015
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Most academic efforts to understand morality and ideology come from theorists who limit the domain of morality to issues related to harm and fairness. For such theorists, conservative beliefs are ... More


The Evolution of French Capitalism

PAUL WINDOLF

in Corporate Networks in Europe and the United States

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199256976
eISBN:
9780191719639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256976.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

This chapter looks at the evolution of capitalism in France. The analysis concentrates on the question whether the governance structure of large French corporations is an example of a lagged ... More


Perfectible Apes in Decadent Cultures: Rousseau’s Anthropology Revisited1

Robert Wokler and Christopher Brooke

Bryan Garsten (ed.)

in Rousseau, the Age of Enlightenment, and Their Legacies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691147888
eISBN:
9781400842407
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691147888.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The diffusion of Rousseau's influence over the past two centuries has been so wide and so substantial that hardly a subject or movement appears to have escaped his clutches. Rousseau perceived a ... More


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