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The Determinants of Executive Compensation

Sydney Finkelstein, Donald C. Hambrick, and Albert A. Cannella

in Strategic Leadership: Theory and Research on Executives, Top Management Teams, and Boards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195162073
eISBN:
9780199867332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162073.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

Research on the determinants of executive compensation has a very long tradition in a variety of academic fields. This chapter focuses on the key ideas that emerge from a review of this work, ... More


Persuading and Motivating Positive Health Behaviors

Leslie R. Martin, Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek, and M. Robin DiMatteo

in Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195380408
eISBN:
9780199864454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380408.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores the factors that influence people to initially adopt, and then to pursue, a health-related goal. These include things such as social comparisons, emotions (e.g., fear or ... More


Group Status and Feelings of Personal Entitlement: The Roles of Social Comparison and System-Justifying Beliefs

Laurie T. O'Brien and Brenda Major

in Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195320916
eISBN:
9780199869541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320916.003.017
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the relationship between group status and feelings of personal entitlement. Considered are two mechanisms that affect feelings of personal entitlement: social comparison ... More


Social Comparison and Envy

Mark D. Alicke and Ethan Zell

in Envy: Theory and Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195327953
eISBN:
9780199301485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327953.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses what social comparison theorists have to say about envious people and their targets, as well as the situational factors that nurture or discourage envy. It explores the ... More


Envy: Theory and Research

Richard Smith (ed.)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195327953
eISBN:
9780199301485
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327953.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

For centuries, scholars have argued that envy is the source of much aggressive behavior as well as the root cause of much unhappiness, but it is only recently that there have been attempts to examine ... More


Inequality in the Social Mind

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter presents a puzzle: why hasn’t American support for social welfare spending increased with growing inequality? After showing how public opinion about inequality and social spending has ... More


The Power of Social Comparison

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The final chapter situates social comparison as an important power resource and asks whether the politics of social comparison can be altered to break the reinforcing cycle of inequality and ... More


Issues Regarding the Use of Well-Being Measures for Policy

Ed Diener, Richard E. Lucas, Ulrich Schimmack, and John F. Helliwell

in Well-Being for Public Policy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195334074
eISBN:
9780199893928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334074.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Besides concerns about measurement validity, a number of other potential problems are often believed to accompany the use of well-being measures to assist policy makers. One objection is that it is ... More


Social Comparison and Support for Redistribution

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Dominant theory predicts that support for economic redistribution will increase as income disparities widen and more people fall farther from the top. Yet public opinion in the United States has ... More


Social Comparison Before, During, and After the Competition

Stephen M. Garcia, Zachary A. Reese, and Avishalom Tor

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides an overview of the interplay between social comparison and competition before, during, and after the competition. Competition is defined broadly to include an act or process of ... More


The Politics of Social Comparison

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter explains the prevalence of social comparison in political rhetoric and everyday life and summarizes how upward comparisons with the rich and downward comparisons with the poor affect ... More


Social Comparison and Status Perceptions

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Many Americans misperceive their place in the income distribution. This chapter presents experimental findings demonstrating that individuals can use social comparisons to make sense of the ... More


Why Americans Don’t Look Up

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

What kinds of social comparisons are encouraged by an increasingly unequal America? This chapter explores how class segregation and media portrayals of wealth combine to push the American imagination ... More


How Looking Up Keeps Us Down

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Even when people do make social comparisons with the wealthy elite and increase their support for programs that redistribute wealth, the potential for political action faces an additional hurdle. In ... More


Temporal Comparisons in a Social World

Anne E. Wilson and Erin Shanahan

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

People evaluate themselves against a variety of standards. In addition to measuring themselves against relevant others (social comparisons), individuals often appraise their current selves by looking ... More


The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Economic inequality is at a record high in the United States, but public demand for redistribution is not rising with it. This book shows that this paradox and other mysteries about class and ... More


Revealing the Social Mind

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter presents the methodological challenges of studying social comparative thinking and relative status. With observational data, it is nearly impossible to untangle the social comparisons ... More


Why Americans Would Rather Look Down

Meghan Condon and Amber Wichowsky

in The Economic Other: Inequality in the American Political Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226691732
eISBN:
9780226691909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226691909.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Social psychologists have found in a variety of contexts that people use downward social comparison to protect their fragile selves and boost their egos when threatened. This chapter presents results ... More


Health Cognitions, Decision-Making, and Behavior: The Ubiquity of Social Comparison

William M. P. Klein and Elise L. Rice

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Social comparison processes exert a ubiquitous influence on people’s thoughts, decisions, and behaviors related to their health. Moreover, many comparative perceptions (e.g., perceived personal risk, ... More


A History of Social Comparison Theory

Ladd Wheeler and Jerry Suls

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides a history of social comparison theory starting in 1944 with the “Level of Aspiration” paper by Kurt Lewin and colleagues. From the work of Stan Schachter on affiliation in the ... More


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