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The Determinants of Executive Compensation

Sydney Finkelstein, Donald C. Hambrick, and Albert A. Cannella

in Strategic Leadership: Theory and Research on Executives, Top Management Teams, and Boards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195162073
eISBN:
9780199867332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162073.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

Research on the determinants of executive compensation has a very long tradition in a variety of academic fields. This chapter focuses on the key ideas that emerge from a review of this work, ... More


Persuading and Motivating Positive Health Behaviors

Leslie R. Martin, Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek, and M. Robin DiMatteo

in Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195380408
eISBN:
9780199864454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380408.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores the factors that influence people to initially adopt, and then to pursue, a health-related goal. These include things such as social comparisons, emotions (e.g., fear or ... More


Group Status and Feelings of Personal Entitlement: The Roles of Social Comparison and System-Justifying Beliefs

Laurie T. O'Brien and Brenda Major

in Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195320916
eISBN:
9780199869541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320916.003.017
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the relationship between group status and feelings of personal entitlement. Considered are two mechanisms that affect feelings of personal entitlement: social comparison ... More


Social Comparison and Envy

Mark D. Alicke and Ethan Zell

in Envy: Theory and Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195327953
eISBN:
9780199301485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327953.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses what social comparison theorists have to say about envious people and their targets, as well as the situational factors that nurture or discourage envy. It explores the ... More


Envy: Theory and Research

Richard Smith (ed.)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195327953
eISBN:
9780199301485
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327953.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

For centuries, scholars have argued that envy is the source of much aggressive behavior as well as the root cause of much unhappiness, but it is only recently that there have been attempts to examine ... More


Social Comparison Before, During, and After the Competition

Stephen M. Garcia, Zachary A. Reese, and Avishalom Tor

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides an overview of the interplay between social comparison and competition before, during, and after the competition. Competition is defined broadly to include an act or process of ... More


Issues Regarding the Use of Well-Being Measures for Policy

Ed Diener, Richard E. Lucas, Ulrich Schimmack, and John F. Helliwell

in Well-Being for Public Policy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195334074
eISBN:
9780199893928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334074.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Besides concerns about measurement validity, a number of other potential problems are often believed to accompany the use of well-being measures to assist policy makers. One objection is that it is ... More


Temporal Comparisons in a Social World

Anne E. Wilson and Erin Shanahan

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

People evaluate themselves against a variety of standards. In addition to measuring themselves against relevant others (social comparisons), individuals often appraise their current selves by looking ... More


Effects of Local and General Comparisons on Self-Assessment

Ethan Zell and Mark D. Alicke

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Local comparisons involve thinking about the self in relation to one or a few people, such as friends, family, neighbors, or coworkers. Conversely, general comparisons involve thinking about the self ... More


Health Cognitions, Decision-Making, and Behavior: The Ubiquity of Social Comparison

William M. P. Klein and Elise L. Rice

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Social comparison processes exert a ubiquitous influence on people’s thoughts, decisions, and behaviors related to their health. Moreover, many comparative perceptions (e.g., perceived personal risk, ... More


A History of Social Comparison Theory

Ladd Wheeler and Jerry Suls

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides a history of social comparison theory starting in 1944 with the “Level of Aspiration” paper by Kurt Lewin and colleagues. From the work of Stan Schachter on affiliation in the ... More


Individual Differences in Social Comparison: The Complex Effects of Social Comparison Orientation

Abraham P. Buunk, Frederick X. Gibbons, Pieternel Dijkstra, and Zlatan Krizan

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Individuals differ considerably in their social comparison orientation (SCO), that is, the extent to which and the frequency with which they compare themselves with others. In this chapter, the major ... More


Situational Social Influence

Donald Palmer

in Normal Organizational Wrongdoing: A Critical Analysis of Theories of Misconduct in and by Organizations

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199573592
eISBN:
9780191738715
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573592.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Corporate Governance and Accountability

This chapter presents the situational social influence explanation of organizational wrongdoing. This explanation is the second of five alternative accounts of wrongdoing considered in the book. It ... More


Stereotypes and Relative Social Status in Social Comparisons

Jillian K. Swencionis and Susan T. Fiske

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

How do people compare themselves to others who are relatively higher or lower in social status, and what are the interpersonal consequences of these status comparisons? This chapter reviews past and ... More


Agency and Communion in Social Comparison

Kenneth D. Locke

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Social comparisons help people to assess whether specific communal goals (to fit in and get along) or agentic goals (to stand out and get ahead) are likely to be fulfilling versus frustrating. For ... More


How Social Networks Shape Social Comparison

Jingwen Zhang and Damon Centola

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

While social comparison research has focused on the processes and consequences of how the comparer gleans information from the comparison other (individual or group), recent research on social ... More


Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Jerry Suls, Rebecca L. Collins, and Ladd Wheeler (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This edited volume presents both classic and contemporary conceptual, empirical, and applied perspectives on the role of comparisons with other people—a core aspect of social life—that have ... More


Social Dominance Theory and Power Comparison

Robin Bergh, Gregory K. Davis, Sa-kiera T. J. Hudson, and Jim Sidanius

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter extends classic social comparison research to explain how people think about group-based hierarchies and how they act within them. People spontaneously compare themselves to others in ... More


Myopia of the Masses: Relative Deprivation, Comparative Scope, and System Justification

Ruthie Pliskin, Daniel Yudkin, John T. Jost, and Yaacov Trope

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Despite pervasive income inequality, protests demanding social change are relatively rare. This chapter proposes that comparative scope—the range of social comparison targets that an individual deems ... More


Dimensional Comparison Theory: Extending the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model

Friederike Helm, Herbert W. Marsh, Theresa Dicke, and Jens Möller

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter introduces two extensions of the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model. First, the authors discuss dimensional comparison theory (DCT) positing that in addition to social and ... More


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