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Darwinism and Sociopolitical Thought

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses how Darwin succeeded in capturing a wide audience of scientists and non-scientists. Darwinian theory was used to support all types of political and ideological positions, from ... More


 World War I and After: Godlessness and the Scopes Trial

Kevin M. Schultz

in Prophesies of Godlessness: Predictions of America's Iminent Secularization from the Puritans to Postmodernity

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195342536
eISBN:
9780199867042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342536.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

In “Godlessness and the Scopes Trial,” Kevin M. Schultz examines the most famous battle over religion in the 1920s, and perhaps the most famous battle in the entirety of the twentieth century, the ... More


Biology, Evolution and Liberal Collectivism

Michael Freeden

in The New Liberalism: An Ideology of Social Reform

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229612
eISBN:
9780191678899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229612.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

The claim that biology supported ethics, and the integration of both is within the liberal outlook, vastly increased the persuasive power of the liberal argument. This chapter considers the role of ... More


An Uneasy Engagement: Chinese Ideas of Global Order and Justice in Historical Perspective

Rana Mitter

in Order and Justice in International Relations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251209
eISBN:
9780191599293
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251207.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Mitter's study argues that until the late Qing, concepts of international order and justice were alien to China's imperial rulers. Subsequently, however, in the nineteenth and early twentieth ... More


The Cost of Self in Two Alcott Utopias

Katherine Adams

in Owning Up: Privacy, Property, and Belonging in U.S. Women's Life Writing, 1840-1890

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195336801
eISBN:
9780199868360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336801.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, American, 19th Century Literature

This chapter traces developments in U.S. privacy discourse from the antebellum period, through Reconstruction, and into the 1890s. Taking ... More


“Male and Female He Created Them” (Genesis 1:27): Interpreting Gender after Darwin

Stephen C. Barton

in Reading Genesis after Darwin

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195383355
eISBN:
9780199870561
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383355.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, History of Christianity

Beginning with Darwin's almost religious awe at the wonder of natural selection, this chapter moves to an account of the ambiguous legacy of Darwin's views on gender, including the support they ... More


Katō Hiroyuki: Turning Nature into Time

Julia Adeney Thomas

in Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520228542
eISBN:
9780520926844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520228542.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines the views of Japanese politician Katō Hiroyuki about nature. It explains that in 1881 Hiroyuki turned decidedly in favor of autocratic control, relying in large part on Social ... More


Psychoneuroimmunology and Religion: Implications for Society and Culture

HOWARD L. KAYE

in The Link Between Religion and Health: Psychoneuroimmunology and the Faith Factor

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195143607
eISBN:
9780199893256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143607.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter discusses the biochemical pathways by which spirituality and religious practice exert their influence on health and their implications for medicine, society, and culture. It addresses ... More


Scarcity, Biology, and the Rational Actor

Herbert Hovenkamp

in The Opening of American Law: Neoclassical Legal Thought, 1870-1970

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199331307
eISBN:
9780190204495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199331307.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Legal History

In the late nineteenth century two powerful and very different ideas changed the course of American legal thought. First was Darwin’s theory of natural selection, which quickly migrated from ... More


BROADENING HORIZONS

Marion Elizabeth Rodgers

in Mencken: The American Iconoclast

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195072389
eISBN:
9780199787982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195072389.003.0011
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

In 1908, Mencken was asked to become the new literary critic of The Smart Set magazine. Over the next fifteen years, Mencken would write 182 essays in which he reviewed some 2,000 books. The Smart ... More


The Acculturation of Japanese Nature

Julia Adeney Thomas

in Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520228542
eISBN:
9780520926844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520228542.003.0007
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter explores a hiatus in nature's overt political presence in Japan after around 1890 and until the Russo-Japanese War. It argues that the Social Darwinian concept of nature proved so ... More


The Twilight of Waspdom

in Richard Hofstadter: An Intellectual Biography

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226076409
eISBN:
9780226076379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226076379.003.0002
Subject:
History, Historiography

This chapter elaborates upon issues touched by Richard Hofstadter in his work Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915. As he searched for a dissertation topic in the late spring of 1940, ... More


A Darwinian Naturalist's Perspective on Altruism

Michael Ruse

in Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195143584
eISBN:
9780199848119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143584.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Evolutionary ethics or “social Darwinism” is a powerful and wide-ranging doctrine or set of beliefs. In ethics and morality, it is useful to make a twofold distinction between “substantive” or ... More


Social Science as History

Andrew E. Barshay

in The Social Sciences in Modern Japan: The Marxian and Modernist Traditions

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520236455
eISBN:
9780520941335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520236455.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

The theme of Japan as the only successful modernizer or “power” in Asia has been endlessly played out since the 1890s. Japanese elites undertook a forced march to industrialization and military ... More


Nature Historicised

Frank M. Turner

Richard A. Lofthouse (ed.)

in European Intellectual History from Rousseau to Nietzsche

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780300207293
eISBN:
9780300212914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300207293.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Evolution became the single new idea that permeated deeply into virtually all areas of intellectual endeavor at the turn of the twentieth century. More than any other scientific or intellectual ... More


Ethics, Science, and Society

Erik J. Hammerstrom

in The Science of Chinese Buddhism: Early Twentieth-Century Engagements

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780231170345
eISBN:
9780231539586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231170345.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

Describes Buddhists’ ethical criticisms of science. In the early twentieth century, both science and progressive thought in China were closely associated with social evolutionism. Wrongly referred to ... More


Greece, India, and Race among the Victorians

Partha Mitter

in African Athena: New Agendas

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199595006
eISBN:
9780191731464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595006.003.0004
Subject:
Classical Studies, African History: BCE to 500CE

The paper traces the process leading to the repudiation of the Afroasiatic roots of Greek civilization in the 19th century. Comparative philology, physical anthropology and biology melded language, ... More


National Character

Paul Gilbert

in Cultural Identity and Political Ethics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748623877
eISBN:
9780748671991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748623877.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter investigates the idea of national character deriving from Herder. This, it contends, is the now discredited forerunner of the notion of cultural identity but plays a similar role in ... More


Introduction

Jan Breman

in On Pauperism in Present and Past

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199464814
eISBN:
9780199086481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199464814.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

The introductory chapter lays out the blueprint of the study along with methodological and field details. Pauperism and pauperization are widespread phenomena in India today. This observation will be ... More


“Love of Nature Leading to Love of Man”

Robert M. Ryan

in Charles Darwin and the Church of Wordsworth

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198757351
eISBN:
9780191817274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198757351.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

Wordsworth influenced the reception of Darwinian theory in its socio-economic as well as its scientific dimensions. As the ideology we now call Social Darwinism emerged from Malthusian theories of ... More


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