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The Clinical Significance Decision

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

An important element in using evidence to select therapy is the determination of whether a treatment is clinically superior to its competitors. This chapter argues that the determination is a ... More


Using Significance Tests in Establishing Associations

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.23
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Statistical significance testing can be viewed as a formal method for assessing the evidence with regard to a scientific conjecture. It reflects the degree to which we can be confident that an ... More


Bayesianism in Statistics

Colin Howson

in Bayes's Theorem

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263419
eISBN:
9780191734175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263419.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Bayesianism in statistics. The first section of the chapter is devoted to the First Bayesian Theory, which is immediately followed by a discussion of significance tests and the ... More


Statistical Testing and the World's Contribution to Rationality

J. D. Trout

in Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195107661
eISBN:
9780199786152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195107667.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Many of the background theories in the social sciences and psychology are unreliable, and so theoretical improvement often requires the experimental strain of statistical predictions. Significance ... More


Random Error

David A. Savitz

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses random error. Topics covered include taking a sequential approach to considering random and systematic error, special considerations in evaluating random error in observational ... More


Statistics and Statistical Hypotheses

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter covers statistics from a conceptual rather than a quantitative perspective. The objective is to distinguish statistical from scientific hypotheses and provide background for later ... More


Deductivism

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Discusses the view, often called Deductivism, put forward independently by the philosopher Karl Popper and the statistician and geneticist R. A. Fisher, that deductive logic suffices to tell us which ... More


Statistical Conclusion Validity

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Chapter 6 addresses the sub-category of internal validity defined by Shadish et al., as statistical conclusion validity, or “validity of inferences about the correlation (covariance) between ... More


Realism and the No‐Miracles Argument

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Considers the increasingly popular, so‐called ‘No‐Miracles’ argument that we do have a valid inductive argument for supposing that our current theories, at any rate in physics, are substantially, if ... More


Interval estimation and inference

M. D. Edge

in Statistical Thinking from Scratch: A Primer for Scientists

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198827627
eISBN:
9780191866463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827627.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Interval estimation is the attempt to define intervals that quantify the degree of uncertainty in an estimate. The standard deviation of an estimate is called a standard error. Confidence intervals ... More


Inferential Analysis

Peter Miksza and Kenneth Elpus

in Design and Analysis for Quantitative Research in Music Education

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199391905
eISBN:
9780199391943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199391905.003.0005
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition, Performing Practice/Studies

Researchers often employ statistical techniques to test hypotheses and to express the relative certainty they have when making a claim about how statistics derived from their sample data might be ... More


Tests of Statistical Significance

Brian D. Haig

in The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods: Understanding Statistics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780190222055
eISBN:
9780190871734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190222055.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of null hypothesis significance testing and points out its primary defects. It then outlines the neo-Fisherian account of tests of statistical significance, along ... More


Auxiliary Modeling Procedures

David McDowall, Richard McCleary, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Interrupted Time Series Analysis

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190943943
eISBN:
9780190943981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190943943.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

Chapter 5 describes three sets of auxiliary methods that have emerged as add-on supplements to the traditional ARIMA model-building strategy. First, Bayesian information criteria (BIC) can be used to ... More


Hypothesis Tests and Corroboration

Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780199672110
eISBN:
9780191881671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199672110.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

According to Popper and other influential philosophers and scientists, scientific knowledge grows by repeatedly testing our best hypotheses. However, the interpretation of non-significant ... More


Shaping the Unruly Statistician

Theodore M. Porter

in History of Universities: Volume XXXIV/1: A Global History of Research Education: Disciplines, Institutions, and Nations, 1840-1950

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780192844774
eISBN:
9780191933349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192844774.003.0008
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Statistics achieved something like disciplinary status in universities as a mathematical and methodological field during the first half of the twentieth century. Yet the experience of statistics ... More


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