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Sexuality: The Antithesis of Clonality

John C. Avise

in Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195369670
eISBN:
9780199871063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369670.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sexual reproduction is the antithesis of clonality because genes that are faithfully copied during asexual replication are genetically scrambled (recombined) during the sexual processes of meiosis ... More


Adaptive Diversification Due to Resource Competition in Sexual Models

Michael Doebeli

in Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128931
eISBN:
9781400838936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128931.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter examines evolutionary branching in sexual populations. As sexual populations converge to what would be a branching point in clonal models, splitting obviously becomes a problem, because ... More


Half a Man: The Symbolism and Science of Paraplegic Impotence in World War II America

Beth Linker and Whitney E. Laemmli

in Phallacies: Historical Intersections of Disability and Masculinity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780190458997
eISBN:
9780190459024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190458997.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

At the conclusion of World War II, more than 600,000 men returned to the United States with long-term disabilities, profoundly destabilizing male sexuality in America. This chapter excavates the ... More


The Evolution of Sex Determination

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental aspect of life. It is defined by the occurrence of meiosis and the fusion of two gametes of different sexes or mating types. Genetic mechanisms for the ... More


Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments

Theodore (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247666
eISBN:
9780520944473
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247666.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Experimental approaches to evolution provide indisputable evidence of evolution by directly observing the process at work. Experimental evolution deliberately duplicates evolutionary ... More


Social group formation

Andrew F. G. Bourke

in Principles of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199231157
eISBN:
9780191774553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231157.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Pathways of social group formation are poorly known for the origin of the eukaryotic cell, sexual reproduction, and many interspecific mutualisms. In the origin of multicellularity and eusociality, ... More


. Reproducing Christians: Salvation, Race, and Gender on the Early Modern En glish Stage

Dennis Austin Britton

in Becoming Christian: Race, Reformation, and Early Modern English Romance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780823257140
eISBN:
9780823261482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823257140.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, European Literature

Whereas numerous infidel women convert to Christianity on the early modern English stage, relatively few infidel men convert. Chapter 5 explores the interplay of race, gender, and salvation in ... More


What are sexes, and why are there sexes?

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sex and genders occupy a central place in the human mind and have a long history of alternative interpretations throughout human cultures. Although intimately linked to reproduction in animals and ... More


Prelude: Phylum Choanoflagellata

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

Comprised of only about 200 species, the Choanoflagellata is a small phylum that occurs in most aquatic habitats. Choanoflagellates are unicellular, solitary, or colony-forming ‘flagellates’ without ... More


“How Human Life Began”: Sexual Reproduction in Book 8 of Paradise Lost

Thomas H. Luxon

in Sex before Sex: Figuring the Act in Early Modern England

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816680764
eISBN:
9781452948560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816680764.003.0011
Subject:
History, World Early Modern History

This chapter discusses John Milton’s account of prelapsarian existence in Paradise Lost, which implies that the first human sexual reproduction occurred between God and Adam in an act that ... More


An expanded view of social evolution

Andrew F. G. Bourke

in Principles of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199231157
eISBN:
9780191774553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231157.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A series of major transitions in evolution has generated the biological hierarchy (e.g., genes in cells, cells in organisms, organisms in societies) observed today. Each transition requires that ... More


The Art itself is Nature: Art, Nature, and Ethics in the

Jonathan Morton

in The Roman de la rose in its Philosophical Context: Art, Nature, and Ethics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198816669
eISBN:
9780191858314
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198816669.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, Early and Medieval Literature

The chapter outlines different models of nature in medieval Aristotelian and Platonic philosophy in order to show how the Rose plays them against each other to articulate its own model of the complex ... More


Organisms

Simon J. Evnine

in Making Objects and Events: A Hylomorphic Theory of Artifacts, Actions, and Organisms

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198779674
eISBN:
9780191825989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198779674.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The account of hylomorphic structure developed for artifacts is in this chapter extended to organisms. An account is given of the origin of organisms in sexual reproduction that is modeled on the ... More


Phylum Homoscleromorpha

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The Homoscleromorpha is a small phylum consisting of roughly sixty extant species of marine ‘sponges’. Previously placed within the Demospongiae, both morphological and molecular studies now indicate ... More


Demography and reproduction

R. M. M. Crawford

in Tundra-Taiga Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199559404
eISBN:
9780191810053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199559404.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the resilience of arctic biota to climatic fluctuations and disturbance. The ability to repair decimated populations by sexual reproduction or, as in the case with plants, also ... More


Genetic Values

Carrie Friese

in Cloning Wild Life: Zoos, Captivity, and the Future of Endangered Animals

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814729083
eISBN:
9780814729090
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814729083.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter explores how cloning reproduces and sustains the centrality of sex in the biopolitics of the zoo. Focusing on the cloned banteng, it considers the so-called “genetic values” that are so ... More


The Quandary Over Plant Sex

Lincoln Taiz and Lee Taiz

in Flora Unveiled: The Discovery and Denial of Sex in Plants

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780190490263
eISBN:
9780190868673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190490263.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Chapter one describes “The Quandary Over Plant Sex” in its historical context. The sexual role of pollen wasn’t discovered until the late 17th century, suggesting a deep cultural bias. Beliefs ... More


ANIMALIA (METAZOA)

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

In Systema Naturæ (1735, 1758), Carolus Linnaeus proposed a definition of the Kingdom Animalia: natural objects that grow, live, and sense. In contrast, plants grow and live but do not sense, while ... More


Eugenics and the Production of Good Natural Character

Mariska Leunissen

in From Natural Character to Moral Virtue in Aristotle

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190602215
eISBN:
9780190602239
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190602215.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, General

Chapter 4 takes up Aristotle’s theory of eugenics, which encourages lawgivers not to leave the birth of offspring in their cities up to chance, but to put policies in place that promote the birth of ... More


The Circulation of Life’s Resources

Greg Anderson

in The Realness of Things Past: Ancient Greece and Ontological History

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190886646
eISBN:
9780190886677
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190886646.003.0016
Subject:
Classical Studies, World History: BCE to 500CE

To conclude the book’ s alternative account of the Athenian politeia, the chapter offers a recursive analysis of the resource flows which made this way of life possible. The result is very different ... More


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