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Child Sex Ratios and Their Regional Variation

Yong Cai and William Lavely

in Transition and Challenge: China's Population at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199299294
eISBN:
9780191715082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299294.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter examines regional patterns of sex ratios for children aged 0 to 4 using county-level data collected by the 2000 census. Great regional disparities in sex ratios were observed among young ... More


Fertility in Developing Countries

Mukesh Eswaran

in Understanding Poverty

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195305197
eISBN:
9780199783519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195305191.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This essay discusses why fertility is high in many developing countries; why it declines with economic development; why the institution of child labor facilitates high fertility; and why high ... More


The College Campus: Sex 101?

Mark Regnerus and Jeremy Uecker

in Premarital Sex in America: How Young Americans Meet, Mate, and Think about Marrying

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199743285
eISBN:
9780199894741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199743285.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter considers the sex lives of college students, beginning with an extended discussion of the hookup. In-person interviews describe what hooking up means and what it’s ... More


Sex Selection

Stephen Wilkinson

in Choosing Tomorrow's Children: The Ethics of Selective Reproduction

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199273966
eISBN:
9780191706585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273966.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter addresses the issue of ‘social’ sex selection (sex selection for reasons other than the avoidance of sex-linked disorders). After outlining the legal and regulatory context in the UK, it ... More


Fitness landscapes, mortality schedules, and mating systems

Bradley R. Anholt

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Acquiring the resources for reproduction comes at the risk of death. After emergence, females of most odonate species gain more mass than males and concomitantly suffer higher mortality rates. ... More


Sex allocation

Jan Komdeur

in The Evolution of Parental Care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692576
eISBN:
9780191774737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692576.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews various social and ecological circumstances linked to parental care that could drive variation in adaptive sex allocation in of vertebrates. The most extreme and precise sex ... More


Ecology of the guppy in Trinidad

Anne E. Magurran

in Evolutionary Ecology: The Trinidadian Guppy

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527855
eISBN:
9780191713576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527855.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reveals that there are significant complexities in the Trinidadian guppy system that make the investigation of the evolutionary ecology of the guppy both more challenging than it ... More


Equal or Unequal Numbers of Men and Women

Peter Biller

in The Measure of Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199265596
eISBN:
9780191699085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199265596.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Medieval History, History of Ideas

Historians have examined chronicler Giovanni Villani's figures in order to reconstruct past demographic reality, but not to ask what the practice, figures, and phrases used by Villani represented in ... More


Induced Abortion and its Demographic Consequences

Wei Chen

in Transition and Challenge: China's Population at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199299294
eISBN:
9780191715082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299294.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter investigates changes in induced abortion and their relationship with the implementation of the family planning policies, the decline in fertility, and the rise of sex ratios at birth. It ... More


The Evolution of Sex Determination

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental aspect of life. It is defined by the occurrence of meiosis and the fusion of two gametes of different sexes or mating types. Genetic mechanisms for the ... More


Territoriality in odonates

Jukka Suhonen, Markus J. Rantala, and Johanna Honkavaara

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses causes and consequences of territorial behaviour in odonates. In territorial species, males may use two mating tactics or strategies that may be environmentally or genetically ... More


Autoselection: selfish genetic elements

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Genetic elements that spread by parasitizing the replicative machinery of a host cell are common inhabitants of the genome, especially in multicellular sexual organisms. They show how genetic ... More


Servants and Servanthood

P. J. P. Goldberg

in Women, Work, and Life Cycle in a Medieval Economy: Women in York and Yorkshire c.1300-1520

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198201540
eISBN:
9780191674938
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201540.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History, Economic History

This chapter deals with servants and servanthood in life-cycle terms. Any relationship between the master or mistress and employee can be technically seen as one of service. The employee was the ... More


Kin Selection

James H. Hunt

in The Evolution of Social Wasps

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195307979
eISBN:
9780199894192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307979.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter examines inclusive fitness, which is the conceptual paradigm that has dominated the field for the past three decades. This paradigm is shown to be wanting as a framework to understand ... More


Bat-eared foxes: Bat-eared foxes ‘insectivory’ and luck: lessons from an extreme canid

Barbara Maas and David W. Macdonald

in The Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515562
eISBN:
9780191705632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515562.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter presents a case study of bat-eared foxes in the Serengeti in order to shed light on the questions: how does their behaviour differ from that of other canids, and why? Topics discussed ... More


Sex Ratio Theory, Ancient and Modern: An Eighteenth-Century Debate about Intelligent Design and the Development of Models in Evolutionary Biology

Elliott Sober

in Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720807
eISBN:
9780226720838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720838.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter demonstrates how Charles Darwin's theory inaugurated a steady progression toward an ever-sharper distinction between living creatures and artificial devices, and describes how natural ... More


Lifetime reproductive success and sexual selection theory

Walter D. Koenig

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

This chapter summarizes studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) conducted on odonates. Such studies have focused on many characters, but have typically concluded that survivorship — the main ... More


Transitions among sex-determination systems

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Transitions among sex-determination systems and mechanisms are manifold and surprisingly frequent. The ultimate causes for such transitions are classified in three main categories: i) neutral ... More


Fecundity and Fertility

Germaine M. Buck Louis

in Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195387902
eISBN:
9780199895328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387902.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

Human fecundity and fertility comprise the research domains of reproductive epidemiology and each has a spectrum of outcomes suitable for epidemiologic study. Fecundity outcomes in either or both ... More


A Civilizing Influence? The Female Migrant

Marjory Harper and Stephen Constantine

in Migration and Empire

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199250936
eISBN:
9780191594847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250936.003.0008
Subject:
History, World Modern History

Social expectations largely explain why UK emigrants and others, including indentured workers, were disproportionately male. Many women who did migrate, including immigrants into the UK, were ... More


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