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Do the Hominid-Specific Regions of X–Y Homology Contain Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in a Critical Event Linked to Speciation?

Carole A. Sargent, Patricia Blanco, and Nabeel A. Affara

in The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263112
eISBN:
9780191734885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263112.003.0013
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

It has been postulated that the critical events leading to major differences between humans and the great apes are associated with major changes on sex chromosomes. Regions of homology between the ... More


The Evolution of Sex Determination

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental aspect of life. It is defined by the occurrence of meiosis and the fusion of two gametes of different sexes or mating types. Genetic mechanisms for the ... More


Research and Methodological Issues in the Study of Sex Differences and Hormone-Behavior Relations

Lisa A. Eckel, Arthur P. Arnold, Elizabeth Hampson, Jill B. Becker, Jeffrey D. Blaustein, and James P. Herman

in Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311587
eISBN:
9780199865048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311587.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter provides a conceptual and methodological overview of relevant issues in sex differences/sexual differentiation research, and provides guidance to investigators studying the role of sex ... More


The evolution of sex chromosomes

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The chromosomes carrying the genes that determine sexes or mating types often show strong heteromorphy. This chapter discusses the evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes, from the initial ... More


Sex Differences in the Brain: What’s Old and What’s New?

Margaret M. McCarthy and Arthur P. Arnold

in Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311587
eISBN:
9780199865048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311587.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The study of sex differences in the brain has a long, rich history and remains a vibrant and controversial topic that is central to the field of neuroscience both for its obvious relevance and its ... More


X and Y

Soraya de Chadarevian

in Heredity under the Microscope: Chromosomes and the Study of the Human Genome

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780226685083
eISBN:
9780226685250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226685250.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Many of the early observations on unusual chromosome pictures concerned the number of sex chromosomes. Chapter 3 argues that a combination of technical, bio-medical, and cultural reasons were ... More


Clonality within the Individual

John C. Avise

in Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195369670
eISBN:
9780199871063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369670.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Although clonality is often discussed in reference to whole organisms, the phenomenon also applies to (and is underlain by) genetic processes operating within each individual. All forms of clonal ... More


Transitions among sex-determination systems

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Transitions among sex-determination systems and mechanisms are manifold and surprisingly frequent. The ultimate causes for such transitions are classified in three main categories: i) neutral ... More


Sex Itself: The Search for Male and Female in the Human Genome

Sarah S. Richardson

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226084688
eISBN:
9780226084718
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226084718.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Sex Itself examines the interaction between cultural gender norms and genetic theories of sex from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present postgenomic age. Analyzing the history of ... More


Evolutionary interactions between sex chromosomes and autosomes

Manyuan Long, Maria D. Vibranovski, and Yong E. Zhang

in Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642274
eISBN:
9780191774751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642274.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Investigations into the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-determination have attracted wide attention, with voluminous literature reporting interesting findings in the evolution of individual X ... More


Genetic Variation in Natural Populations

Fred W. Allendorf, W. Chris Funk, Sally N. Aitken, Margaret Byrne, and Gordon Luikart

in Conservation and the Genomics of Populations

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
April 2022
ISBN:
9780198856566
eISBN:
9780191889912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198856566.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Genetic variation among individuals within populations and among populations can be assessed at the chromosomal, protein, or DNA sequence level. The best tool or approach depends on the question ... More


Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters

Julie A. Greenberg

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814731895
eISBN:
9780814738610
Item type:
book
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814731895.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

The term “intersex” evokes diverse images, typically of people who are both male and female or neither male nor female. Neither vision is accurate. The millions of people with an intersex condition, ... More


The Matilda Effect: Joshua Lederberg’s Brilliance Obscured His Wife’s Reputation

Thomas E. Schindler

in A Hidden Legacy: The Life and Work of Esther Zimmer Lederberg

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780197531679
eISBN:
9780197531709
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197531679.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter suggests that the most important factors that diminished Esther Lederberg’s scientific career and legacy were her gender and marriage. The fact that her famous collaborator was also her ... More


Gender-Related Aspects of Consumer Neuroscience

Sven Braeutigam and Peter Kenning

in An Integrative Guide to Consumer Neuroscience

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
March 2022
ISBN:
9780198789932
eISBN:
9780191835650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789932.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Vision

This chapter on gender-related aspects of consumer neuroscience provides an overview of the differences in brain function between men and women. Consideration is given to the biological basis of ... More


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