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The Self-Aware Animal

Mark R. Leary

in The Curse of the Self: Self-Awareness, Egotism, and the Quality of Human Life

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172423
eISBN:
9780199786756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172423.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the nature of self-awareness and the consequences of self-reflection for thought, behavior, and emotion. Attention is devoted to self-awareness in nonhuman animals (research ... More


Narrative and Value

Anthony Rudd

in Self, Value, and Narrative: A Kierkegaardian Approach

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199660049
eISBN:
9780191744976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660049.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Moral Philosophy

This chapter reintroduces the evaluative element of narrative theory, arguing that ethical self-evaluation must take a narrative form. A serious self-evaluator must understand his or her life as a ... More


Evaluation after Performance

Stewart Gordon

in Mastering the Art of Performance: A Primer for Musicians

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195177435
eISBN:
9780199864690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177435.003.12
Subject:
Music, Performing Practice/Studies

This chapter approaches evaluation from the standpoint of self-evaluation. It suggests ways to score oneself on such aspects as continuity, effect, and attitude. It applies evaluation to cases where ... More


Personhood, Self-Shaping, and the Good

Anthony Rudd

in Self, Value, and Narrative: A Kierkegaardian Approach

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199660049
eISBN:
9780191744976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660049.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Moral Philosophy

Drawing on the work of Harry Frankfurt, this chapter argues that to be a person is to have a capacity for higher-order identification with first-order desires, and that this reflective identification ... More


Foundations of Metacognition

Michael J. Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner, and Joëlle Proust (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646739
eISBN:
9780191745867
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646739.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Metacognition has been described as ‘thinking about thinking’, and metacognition research has become a rapidly growing field of interdisciplinary research in the cognitive sciences. There have been ... More


Metacognition and mindreading: one or two functions?

Joëlle Proust

in Foundations of Metacognition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646739
eISBN:
9780191745867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646739.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Given disagreements about the architecture of the mind, the nature of self-knowledge, and its epistemology, the question of how to understand the function and scope of metacognition — the control of ... More


Metacognitive perspectives on unawareness and uncertainty

Paul Egré and Denis Bonnay

in Foundations of Metacognition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646739
eISBN:
9780191745867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646739.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

A state of ignorance about a proposition can result from two distinct sources: uncertainty about what the correct answer actually is, and unawareness of what the answer might possibly be. Uncertainty ... More


Commentary: Personalization

Peggy J. Miller and Grace E. Cho

in Self-Esteem in Time and Place: How American Families Imagine, Enact, and Personalize a Cultural Ideal

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199959723
eISBN:
9780190698898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199959723.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Chapter 12, “Commentary: Personalization,” discusses the process of personalization, based on the portraits presented in Chapters 8–11. Personalization is not just a matter of individual variation; ... More


General perspectives on achieving musical excellence

AARON WILLIAMON

in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525356
eISBN:
9780191689345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525356.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology

This chapter begins by examining the amount of work involved in achieving musical excellence. Accumulating hours of practice is not enough. High levels of accomplishment also require that practice ... More


Strategies for individual practice

AARON WILLIAMON

in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525356
eISBN:
9780191689345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525356.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology

This chapter reviews research on strategies for planning practice, executing rehearsal plans, evaluating the success of that execution, and (perhaps most importantly) reflecting on one's ability to ... More


Biography as empowering practice: lessons from research

Joanna Bornat and Jan Walmsley

in Biographical methods and professional practice: An international perspective

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861344939
eISBN:
9781447301554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861344939.003.0015
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter explores the way of positioning biographical research and practice on a top-down/bottom-up matrix. It questions the claims for empowerment through biographical work. It does not suggest ... More


Assessment Practices That Promote Learning

David Carless, Joughin Gordon, and Ngar-Fun Liu

in How Assessment Supports Learning: Learning-oriented Assessment in Action

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9789622098237
eISBN:
9789882207035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622098237.003.0003
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This chapter presents thirty-nine separate assessment techniques, selected following a series of reviews of the sixty-four techniques submitted for consideration. Each technique is set out in a ... More


Summary and Conclusions

Rosaria Conte, Giulia Andrighetto, and Marco Campennì

in Minding Norms: Mechanisms and dynamics of social order in agent societies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199812677
eISBN:
9780199369553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812677.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures, Cognitive Psychology

The three questions raised in the Introduction—what norms are, how they emerge, and from among which types of agents—are resumed as benchmarks against which to evaluate the value added by the work ... More


Mindsets and Self-Evaluation: How beliefs about Intelligence can create a Preference for Growth over Defensiveness

Paul A. O’Keefe

in The Complexity of Greatness: Beyond Talent or Practice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199794003
eISBN:
9780199345212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794003.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how theories of intelligence (Dweck, 1999, Dweck & Leggett, 1988) invoke distinct self-evaluative motives that reflect or create a preference for growth ... More


A History of Social Comparison Theory

Ladd Wheeler and Jerry Suls

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides a history of social comparison theory starting in 1944 with the “Level of Aspiration” paper by Kurt Lewin and colleagues. From the work of Stan Schachter on affiliation in the ... More


Looking Up and Ahead: The Social Comparison of Abilities, Personal Attributes, and Opinions

Jerry Suls and Ladd Wheeler

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter describes how integrating attribution processes with social comparison theory resolves some long-standing ambiguities about the role of similarity and motives in Festinger’s original ... More


Effects of Local and General Comparisons on Self-Assessment

Ethan Zell and Mark D. Alicke

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Local comparisons involve thinking about the self in relation to one or a few people, such as friends, family, neighbors, or coworkers. Conversely, general comparisons involve thinking about the self ... More


Maintaining Momentum: Seven Tasks

Daniel C. Taylor, Carl E. Taylor, and Jesse O. Taylor

in Empowerment on an Unstable Planet: From Seeds of Human Energy to a Scale of Global Change

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199842964
eISBN:
9780190258443
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199842964.003.0006
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter describes the seven SEED-SCALE tasks the community can implement to make effective use of their resources. A case study in Afghanistan illustrates this: tribes have taken up the tasks ... More


Avoiding Shame and Guilt

C. Daniel Batson

in A Scientific Search for Altruism: Do We Only Care About Ourselves?

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190651374
eISBN:
9780190651404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190651374.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

After rejecting the remove–empathy hypothesis (Chapter 4), attention turned to the other two classic egoistic explanations for the motivation to help produced by empathic concern: empathy-specific ... More


Our Sense of Self: Who Am I? How Am I Doing?

E. Tory Higgins

in Shared Reality: What Makes Us Strong and Tears Us Apart

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780190948054
eISBN:
9780190082536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190948054.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Of all the objects you know and have beliefs about, you are the object you pay most attention to and want to know best. And, when it comes to sharing beliefs and opinions about the world with others, ... More


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