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Through the Eyes of the Ego

Mark R. Leary

in The Curse of the Self: Self-Awareness, Egotism, and the Quality of Human Life

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172423
eISBN:
9780199786756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172423.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

People process information about themselves, other people, and the world through the filter of their own self-images and egoistic desires. Their experience of the events that unfold around them is ... More


Working Hard or Hardly Working for those Rose-colored Glasses?: Behavioral and Neural Evidence for the Automatic Nature of Unrealistically Positive Self-Perceptions

Jennifer S. Beer

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Even rose-colored glasses cannot hide the apparent discrepancy between models of self-control and the adaptive view of positive illusions. Most models of self-control suggest that accurate ... More


Understanding and Remembering

Leslie R. Martin, Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek, and M. Robin DiMatteo

in Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195380408
eISBN:
9780199864454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380408.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter begins with an overview of the encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories. Important to the encoding process are attention, focus, understanding, and the agility of the working memory. ... More


Measuring Self-Enhancement: From Self-Report to Concrete Behavior

Delroy L. Paulhus and Ronald R. Holden

in Then A Miracle Occurs: Focusing on Behavior in Social Psychological Theory and Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195377798
eISBN:
9780199864522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377798.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Clinical Psychology

In this chapter, the authors note that social and personality psychologists address the issue of behavior in rather different ways. Social psychologists tend to exploit behavior as a concrete outcome ... More


The Stories We Keep

Qi Wang

in The Autobiographical Self in Time and Culture

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199737833
eISBN:
9780199345014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737833.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter continues to examine the cultural origins of the autobiographical self as revealed in everyday memories. It argues that working self-goals monitor the processing of personal event ... More


Greatness of Mind

Hazlett Allan

in A Luxury of the Understanding: On the Value of True Belief

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199674800
eISBN:
9780191761164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674800.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is argued that false belief is often better for a person than true belief, by appeal to the psychological literature on “self-enhancement bias” – bias in favor of a positive self-conception. Such ... More


A History of Social Comparison Theory

Ladd Wheeler and Jerry Suls

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides a history of social comparison theory starting in 1944 with the “Level of Aspiration” paper by Kurt Lewin and colleagues. From the work of Stan Schachter on affiliation in the ... More


Looking Up and Ahead: The Social Comparison of Abilities, Personal Attributes, and Opinions

Jerry Suls and Ladd Wheeler

in Social Comparison, Judgment, and Behavior

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190629113
eISBN:
9780190629137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190629113.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter describes how integrating attribution processes with social comparison theory resolves some long-standing ambiguities about the role of similarity and motives in Festinger’s original ... More


What Is Moral Grandstanding?

Justin Tosi and Brandon Warmke

in Grandstanding: The Use and Abuse of Moral Talk

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190900151
eISBN:
9780190900182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190900151.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Drawing on empirical research from psychology, this chapter gives an account of moral grandstanding. Grandstanding is a contribution to public moral discourse that is significantly motivated by the ... More


Grandstanding and Respect

Justin Tosi and Brandon Warmke

in Grandstanding: The Use and Abuse of Moral Talk

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190900151
eISBN:
9780190900182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190900151.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter presents several ways that moral grandstanding can involve a failure to show appropriate respect for persons. Grandstanders often use the putative moral failings of others as ... More


Our Sense of Self: Who Am I? How Am I Doing?

E. Tory Higgins

in Shared Reality: What Makes Us Strong and Tears Us Apart

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780190948054
eISBN:
9780190082536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190948054.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Of all the objects you know and have beliefs about, you are the object you pay most attention to and want to know best. And, when it comes to sharing beliefs and opinions about the world with others, ... More


The Culturally Situated Self

Amir Rosenmann and Jenny Kurman

in The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190679743
eISBN:
9780190679774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190679743.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The impact of culture on the self, the most fundamental unit of psychological inquiry, has captivated scholarly interest for decades. In this chapter, the authors review strands from this prolific ... More


The Functional Argument

Noam Gur

in Legal Directives and Practical Reasons

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780199659876
eISBN:
9780191748226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199659876.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter discusses law’s capacity to fulfil its conduct-guiding function within different frameworks of practical reasoning. A functional argument of Raz is initially presented: according to this ... More


Neural Processing of Identity-Relevant Feedback: An Electroencephalographic Study

Will Kalkhoff, Richard T. Serpe, Joshua Pollock, Brennan Miller, and Matthew Pfeiffer

in New Directions in Identity Theory and Research

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780190457532
eISBN:
9780190627157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190457532.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews a study employing electroencephalography (EEG) in a neurosociological investigation of the perceptual control of identities with a focus on the verification/enhancement question. ... More


The Epistemic Innocence of Optimistically Biased Beliefs

Lisa Bortolotti, Magdalena Antrobus, and Ema Sullivan-Bissett

in Reasoning: New Essays on Theoretical and Practical Thinking

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198791478
eISBN:
9780191876844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198791478.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Optimistically biased beliefs are beliefs about oneself that are more positive than is warranted by the evidence. Optimistically biased beliefs are the result of the influence of cognitive and ... More


A Critical Examination and Reconceptualization of Humility

Mark R. Leary and Chloe C. Banker

in Humility

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780190864873
eISBN:
9780190864910
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190864873.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter critically examines psychological conceptualizations of humility and offers a novel integrative perspective that identifies the central psychological feature of humility. The gist of ... More


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