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Selection Bias in Cohort Studies

David A. Savitz

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiologic studies make comparisons between two or more groups to draw inferences about possible causal relations between some attribute that may affect health, generically termed exposure, and ... More


Avoiding Bias in Case and Control Selection

Haroutune K. Armenian

in The Case-Control Method: Design and Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195187113
eISBN:
9780199864898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187113.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Following an explanation of bias as the lack of independence between the case and control selection process and the assessment of the exposure status, this chapter develops the various approaches and ... More


Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

David A. Savitz

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book offers a strategy for assessing epidemiologic research findings. Specific tools for assessing the presence and impact of selection bias in both cohort and case-control studies, bias from ... More


Precision and Validity in Study Design

Harvey Checkoway, Neil Pearce, and David Kriebel

in Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195092424
eISBN:
9780199864553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092424.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The accuracy of epidemiologic studies includes issues of both precision and validity. This chapter provides an overview of the main themes, along with more detailed presentations of those aspects of ... More


Response rates and their maximization

Emily White, Bruce K. Armstrong, and Rodolfo Saracci

in Principles of Exposure Measurement in Epidemiology: Collecting, Evaluating, and Improving Measures of Disease Risk Factors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509851
eISBN:
9780191723827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509851.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The emphasis of this chapter is on response rates and their maximization, and how low response rates may bias the results of epidemiologic studies. Specifically, response bias — a form of selection ... More


Anthropometric Indicators: Measurement and Selection Biases?

Peter Svedberg

in Poverty and Undernutrition: Theory, Measurement, and Policy

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292685
eISBN:
9780191596957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292686.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

In this chapter, the main technical measurement problems encountered in assessing the anthropometric status of people are analysed. While anthropometric height and weight observations are simple and ... More


Index Numbers: Issues and Alternatives

Robert J. Shiller

in Macro Markets: Creating Institutions for Managing Society's Largest Economic Risks

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294184
eISBN:
9780191596926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294182.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Financial Economics

This chapter addresses the fact that creating index numbers for settlement of contracts requires some judgement, and that no single method is likely to be applicable to all circumstances—there are ... More


Some topics in social statistics

David Firth

in Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566540
eISBN:
9780191718038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566540.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter summarizes recent themes and research topics in social statistics, viewed as statistical methods of particular value in substantive research fields such as criminology, demography, ... More


Basic Concepts and Assumptions

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter defines important terms and concepts. It is assumed that readers are familiar with issues related to the appropriate application of each statistical procedure in terms of assumptions and ... More


Binary Classification under Sample Selection Bias

Hein Matthias

in Dataset Shift in Machine Learning

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262170055
eISBN:
9780262255103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262170055.003.0003
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter examines the problem of binary classification under sample selection bias from a decision-theoretic perspective. Starting from a derivation of the necessary and sufficient conditions for ... More


Bias Correcting Selection Effects

David F. Hendry

in Empirical Model Discovery and Theory Evaluation: Automatic Selection Methods in Econometrics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262028356
eISBN:
9780262324410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028356.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

We develop approximate bias corrections for the conditional distributions of the estimated parameters of retained variables after model selection, such that approximately unbiased estimates of their ... More


Methodological Alternatives and Supplements to Random Sampling

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter begins with a discussion of external validity and sampling bias. Next, the rationale and limitations of RS as a way to maximize external validity and minimize sampling bias are ... More


Designing Population Health Studies

T. Kue Young

in Population Health: Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195158540
eISBN:
9780199864379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195158540.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the different research designs in epidemiology and public health; distinguishes levels of measurement, validity and reliability, error and bias, types of confounding, effect ... More


Methodological Alternatives and Supplements to Random Assignment

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter begins with a discussion of internal validity and assignment bias. Next, the rationale for, and the limitations of, RA as a way to maximize internal validity and minimize assignment are ... More


Selection Bias and Confounding Resulting from Selection in Cohort Studies

David A. Savitz and Gregory A. Wellenius

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Connecting Research to Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190243777
eISBN:
9780190243807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243777.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cohort studies vary in their details, but the common feature is a comparison of disease occurrence in relation to exposure, without sampling based on the health outcome as is done in case-control ... More


Causal Inference in Perinatal Epidemiology: Revisiting the Birth Weight Paradox

Enrique F. Schisterman and Robert W. Platt

in Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195387902
eISBN:
9780199895328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387902.003.0082
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

Does smoking cause neonatal mortality? Understanding causation is essential to inform the creation of effective interventions aimed at improving human health. Causal diagrams in the form of directed ... More


Selection Bias in Case-Control Studies

David A. Savitz and Gregory A. Wellenius

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Connecting Research to Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190243777
eISBN:
9780190243807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243777.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In cohort studies, sampling of study participants is independent of the outcome. In contrast, in case-control studies participants are sampled at different rates depending on whether or not they ... More


Geography, Trade, and Currency Union

Jacques Mélitz

in Monetary Unions and Hard Pegs: Effects on Trade, Financial Development, and Stability

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199271405
eISBN:
9780191601200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271402.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter reports on four basic results of tests of the standard gravity equation. First, geography can reflect comparative advantage as well as transportation cost. Second, the effect of distance ... More


Sampling and Coverage Issues for Web Surveys

Roger Tourangeau, Frederick G. Conrad, and Mick P. Couper

in The Science of Web Surveys

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199747047
eISBN:
9780199345069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199747047.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses sampling and coverage error. Unlike other survey modes, Web surveys lack a “native” sample selection technique, such as random-digit dialing for telephone surveys. The most ... More


Protest Event Analysis and Its Offspring

Swen Hutter

in Methodological Practices in Social Movement Research

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198719571
eISBN:
9780191788666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719571.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Protest event analysis and related types of quantitative content analysis, such as political claims analysis, have become key methods of social movement research during the last decades. This chapter ... More


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