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 The Origins of Life and the Cosmos as Evolutionary Themes

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter demonstrates that the origin of the universe was probabilistic, not preordained, because Heisenberg's uncertainty principle would have been violated at the level of the Big Bang. The ... More


Kelvin—The Legacy

Andrew Whitaker

in Kelvin: Life, Labours and Legacy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231256
eISBN:
9780191710803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231256.003.0016
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter focuses on the legacy of Lord Kelvin. A century after his death, Kelvin's name is also associated with the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics, and several other ... More


Energy flow

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The second law of thermodynamics is central to understanding ecology, although it is ignored by most ecology text books. It follows from the second law that all organisms must draw free energy from ... More


THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses thermodynamic principles. Topics covered include the laws of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics, the principle of Caratheodory, a comparison of various methods of ... More


Thermodynamics and the Origins of Order

Niall Shanks

in God, the Devil, and Darwin: A Critique of Intelligent Design Theory

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195161991
eISBN:
9780199835058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195161998.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The creationist claim that evolution is inconsistent with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy in the universe increases, is discussed and refuted: local reductions in entropy ... More


Nuclear thermostatics

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter presents the basic elements of statistical mechanics, and derives differential laws of thermostatics of deformed nuclei. Adiabatic and isothermal susceptibilities are introduced. Density ... More


Heat engines and the second law

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter introduces the second law of thermodynamics, which is illustrated with an application to the theory of 'heat engines' - machines that produce work from a temperature difference between ... More


Time irreversibility and the H-theorem

CARLO CERCIGNANI

in Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Ludwig Boltzmann not only showed that his Boltzmann equation, which captures the essence of the second law of thermodynamics in mathematical form, admits James Clerk Maxwell's distribution as an ... More


Moral Re-engineering: the Neoliberal Predicament

Alexander Somek

in Engineering Equality: An Essay on European Anti-Discrimination Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199693375
eISBN:
9780191729737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693375.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, EU Law

The final truth about anti-discrimination law comes to the fore in what can be called its neoliberal predicament. It is manifest in attempts to defeat the normative deficiency without transcending ... More


Prologue

Phil Attard

in Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662760
eISBN:
9780191745287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662760.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The prologue begins with Clausius’ Second Law of Thermodynamics and Boltzmann’s identification of entropy with the number of molecular configurations. They underscore the need for a fundamental basis ... More


Two

Juan Manuel Garrido

in On Time, Being, and Hunger: Challenging the Traditional Way of Thinking Life

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780823239351
eISBN:
9780823239399
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823239351.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter characterizes further the temporal-irreversible structure implied in teleological explanation. It focuses on the history of nineteenth-century thermodynamics and highlights the ... More


Subjective Probability and Statistical Physics

Jos Uffink

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines subjectivist interpretations of probabilities in statistical physics. It provides an introduction to subjectivism about probabilities and its main tenets by tracing its history, ... More


Planck, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Black‐body Radiation

Anthony Duncan and Michel Janssen

in Constructing Quantum Mechanics: Volume 1: The Scaffold: 1900-1923

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198845478
eISBN:
9780191880681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845478.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Planck’s work on black‐body radiation grew out of a failed attempt to use electrodynamics to show that entropy can never decrease, i.e., that the second law of thermodynamics is not just a ... More


Nineteenth Century

Don S. Lemons

in Drawing Physics: 2,600 Years of Discovery From Thales to Higgs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035903
eISBN:
9780262338745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035903.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The Romantic Movement gave impetus to a process of unifying the forces of nature – an impetus that bore fruit in, especially, Oersted’s demonstraton of the magnetic effect of electrical currents ... More


Gaia: Toward a Thermodynamics of Life

Eric D. Schneider

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter sheds light on an important connecting principle of nature, one which helps explain processes as different as boiling pots of highly organized fluids, hurricanes, pulsating chemical ... More


The Laws of Thermodynamics: Thomson and Clausius

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) defined the absolute scale of temperature. He heard of Joule’s work in 1847 but could not reconcile Joule’s interconversions between heat and mechanical energy with ... More


Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Andrew M. Steane

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This is an undergraduate textbook in thermodynamics—the science of heat, work, temperature, and entropy. The text presents thermodynamics in and of itself, as an elegant and powerful set of ideas and ... More


Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Robert T. Hanlon

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

At the heart of many fields—physics, chemistry, engineering—lays thermodynamics. While this science plays a critical role in determining the boundary between what is and is not possible in the ... More


Impossible Things, Difficult Things

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Difficult questions addressed are: why are there two main forms of energy, potential and kinetic, and is one of them more fundamental? Kinetic energy – where does it go when we change reference ... More


An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Daniel V. Schroeder

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Thermal physics deals with collections of large numbers of particles—typically 1023 or so. Examples include the air in a balloon, the water in a lake, the electrons in a chunk of metal, and the ... More


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