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Supporting Innovative Construction of Explanatory Scientific Models

Will Bridewell, Stuart R. Borrett, and Pat Langley

in Tools for Innovation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195381634
eISBN:
9780199870264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381634.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Scientific modeling is a creative activity that can benefit from computational support. This chapter reports five challenges that arise in developing such aids, as illustrated by PROMETHEUS, a ... More


Modelling

Nicola Luckhurst

in Science and Structure in Proust's: A la recherche du temps perdu

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198160021
eISBN:
9780191673740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198160021.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, European Literature, 20th-century Literature and Modernism

This chapter reflects upon three modeling scenarios — the aesthetics, the mimetic (Swann as model), and the scientific — in order to explore some key concepts and structures: repetition and ... More


Fictionalism

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Fictionalism about mathematics is the view that we can use mathematics in science and yet not believe that our mathematical claims are true. This chapter critically evaluates some of the most ... More


Introduction

John Dupré

in Human Nature and the Limits of Science

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248063
eISBN:
9780191597367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248060.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Introduces the background to the scientism criticized in the main body of the work, and discusses its relation to various forms of reductionism and physicalism. (This summarizes, in part, detailed ... More


Establishing Evidence

John Macdonald, Charles Branas, and Robert Stokes

in Changing Places: The Science and Art of New Urban Planning

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691195216
eISBN:
9780691197791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691195216.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter provides a guide to scientific evidence and explores how field experiments can be used as a scientific standard for determining what place-based policies to adopt, refine, or abandon. It ... More


The Limits of Science

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most contentious issues with which the emerging naturalism had to grapple was the question of what, if anything, was beyond science’s grasp. Both naturalists and theists accused each other ... More


Simulation Science: Securing the Future

Melanie Armstrong

in Germ Wars: The Politics of Microbes and America's Landscape of Fear

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520292765
eISBN:
9780520966147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520292765.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Because no large-scale bioterrorist attack has happened in the modern age, planning for bioterrorism requires imagination. Simulations, ranging from computer-generated models to large-scale ... More


The Fictional Character of Scientific Models

Stacie Friend

in The Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190212308
eISBN:
9780190212322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190212308.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Many philosophers have drawn parallels between scientific models and fictions. This chapter is concerned with a recent version of this analogy, which compares models to the imagined characters of ... More


If Models Were Fictions, Then What Would They Be?

Amie L. Thomasson

in The Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190212308
eISBN:
9780190212322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190212308.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

There has been growing interest in the idea that model descriptions should be thought of as similar to stories, and model systems should be thought of as akin to fictional characters. But if model ... More


Tables and Metaphors: Walter Mountfort's The Launching of the Mary

Bradley D. Ryner

in Performing Economic Thought: English Drama and Mercantile Writing 1600-1642

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780748684656
eISBN:
9780748697113
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748684656.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, European Literature

This chapter examines how both tabulated data and metaphors functioned in early mercantile treatises as tools for conceptualising economic systems. It finds in treatises by Gerard Malynes and Edward ... More


Of Rabbits and Men: Fiction and Scientific Modeling

Roman Frigg and Fiora Salis

in Fictionalism in Philosophy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780190689605
eISBN:
9780190689636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190689605.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

According to the fiction view of models, scientific models are akin to places and characters in literary fiction. The chapter introduces this view and develops a specific version of the view based on ... More


Uncertainty in Scientific Explanations

Kostas Kampourakis and Kevin McCain

in Uncertainty: How It Makes Science Advance

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190871666
eISBN:
9780190871697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190871666.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

One of the chief aims of science is understanding. The primary way that we achieve understanding of natural phenomena is by constructing explanations of how and why the phenomena occur as they do. ... More


The Scientific Imagination

Arnon Levy and Peter Godfrey-Smith (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190212308
eISBN:
9780190212322
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190212308.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Science is both a creative endeavor and a highly regimented one. It involves surprising, sometimes unthinkably novel ideas, along with meticulous exploration and the careful exclusion of ... More


Cases: Quantitative Analogy

Carrie Figdor

in Pieces of Mind: The Proper Domain of Psychological Predicates

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198809524
eISBN:
9780191846861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198809524.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

Chapter 3 introduces the use of mathematical models and modeling practices in contemporary biological and cognitive sciences. The familiar Lotka–Volterra model of predator–prey relations is used to ... More


World Pictures and World Models: (1961)

Hans Blumenberg

in History, Metaphors, Fables: A Hans Blumenberg Reader

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781501732829
eISBN:
9781501748004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501732829.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter examines Hans Blumenberg's speech “World Pictures and World Models,” which he gave after he was appointed full professor at the University of Gießen in 1960. In the modern age, the ... More


Before Nature: Cuneiform Knowledge and the History of Science

Francesca Rochberg

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226406138
eISBN:
9780226406275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226406275.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Before the concept of nature took shape across the long history of European and Islamic natural philosophy and science, for an equally long period beginning in the early second millennium B.C.E. a ... More


Thinking Through Poetry: Field Reports on Romantic Lyric

Marjorie Levinson

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198810315
eISBN:
9780191864841
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810315.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This is a work of and about literary criticism. Its title signals a contribution to debates about reading. We think “through”—“by means of,” “with”—poems, sympathetically elaborating their surfaces. ... More


Addiction, Responsibility, and Ego Depletion

Neil Levy

in Addiction and Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015509
eISBN:
9780262295635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015509.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter discusses the extent of an addict’s responsibility in drug-related behavior. It is argued that addicts cannot be held responsible for the range of activities in which they must engage in ... More


Chaos

James P. Crutchfield, J. Doyne Farmer, Norman H. Packard, and Robert S. Shaw

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0024
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the discovery of chaos and how it has created a new paradigm in scientific modeling. On one hand, it implies new fundamental limits on the ability to make predictions; on the ... More


Semantic Possibility

Wolfgang Schwarz

in The Science of Meaning: Essays on the Metatheory of Natural Language Semantics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198739548
eISBN:
9780191864100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198739548.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter starts out from the idea that semantics is a “special science” whose aim, like that of chemistry or ecology, is to identify systematic, high-level patterns in a fundamentally physical ... More


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