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Creative Combination of Representations: Scientific Discovery and Technological Invention

Paul Thagard

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter describes two studies that help evaluate the combinatorial conjecture that all creativity results from combinations of mental representations. The first study examines 100 examples of ... More


Investment, Invention, and Scientific Discovery

Maurice FitzGerald Scott

in A New View of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287421
eISBN:
9780191596872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287429.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Schmookler has provided evidence that the rate of invention is determined by the rate of investment. Investment (and inventive) opportunities are created by undertaking investment. There is no ... More


The Interaction of Implicit versus Explicit Processing and Problem Difficulty in a Scientific Discovery Task

Corinne Zimmerman and Jean E. Pretz

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

The present study examined implicit and explicit approaches to problem solving with a simulated scientific discovery task that involved induction of a rule involving the balance of forces. Strategy ... More


The Book of Evidence

Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143898
eISBN:
9780199833023
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143892.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

What is required for a fact to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this book Achinstein introduces four concepts of evidence, which he calls potential, veridical, epistemic‐situation, and subjective. He ... More


Who Really Discovered the Electron?

Peter Achinstein

in The Book of Evidence

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143898
eISBN:
9780199833023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143892.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Although J.J. Thomson is credited with the discovery of the electron on the basis of his experiments with cathode rays in 1897, various physicists, including William Crookes, Arthur Schuster, Philipp ... More


The Failings of Standard Empiricism

Nicholas Maxwell

in The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199261550
eISBN:
9780191698750
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261550.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter first expresses that standard empiricism does not give justice to the achievements of modern science. The chapter then presents ten problems that standard empiricism cannot solve: the ... More


Order or No Order: System Versus Learner Control in Sequencing Simulation-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

Janine Swaak and Ton de Jong

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

What does sequencing have to do with scientific discovery or inquiry learning? Can principles of traditional instruction, such as sequencing, even coexist with ideas of self-regulated learning and ... More


Evidence, Progress, and Discovery

Nicholas Maxwell

in The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199261550
eISBN:
9780191698750
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261550.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter attempts to show that aim-oriented empiricism solves the remaining five problems concerning scientific progress which standard empiricism fails to solve: the problem of the theoretical ... More


Learning in Order: Steps of Acquiring the Concept of the Day/Night Cycle

Katharina Morik and Martin Mühlenbrock

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a detailed model of children's explanations of where the sun goes at night. Knowledge of the day/night cycle is one of the first relatively complex sets of knowledge that all ... More


Neuroethics in education

Kimberly Sheridan, Elena Zinchenko, and Howard Gardner

in Neuroethics: Defining the issues in theory, practice, and policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198567219
eISBN:
9780191724084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567219.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter argues that, in the coming years, educators and the general public will look increasingly to discoveries from the neurosciences for insights into how best to educate young people. It ... More


Christianity and the Global Development of Scientific Medicine

Amanda Porterfield

in Healing in the History of Christianity

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195157185
eISBN:
9780199850389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195157185.003.0015
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

The global expansion of Western Christianity coincided with the development of scientific medicine. As scientific discoveries involving asepsis, anesthesia, and infectious disease increased the ... More


Viewing Dissemination and Implementation Research through a Network Lens

Douglas A. Luke

in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751877
eISBN:
9780199933242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751877.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Dissemination and implementation (D&I) are complex social and organizational processes by which new scientific discoveries and advances can be translated and transferred to people, settings, and ... More


Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog: Scientific Discovery and Social Analysis in the Twenty-First Century

Harry Collins

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226052298
eISBN:
9780226052328
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226052328.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Based in the sociology of scientific knowledge the book describes, in real time, two potential discoveries of gravitational waves, known as the Equinox Event and Big Dog. These were made by the LIGO ... More


Me, Myself, I: In the Interest of Disinterestedness

Eva Hemmungs Wirtén

in Making Marie Curie: Intellectual Property and Celebrity Culture in an Age of Information

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226235844
eISBN:
9780226235981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226235981.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter concentrates on the period when Marie and Pierre Curie worked together as a scientific team and discovered (1898) and later isolated (1902) radium. The narrative orbits around their ... More


Posterior Analytics B.8–10: The Three‐Stage View

David Charles

in Aristotle on Meaning and Essence

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256730
eISBN:
9780191597183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925673X.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Aristotle, in Posterior Analytics B.10, separates three stages in scientific enquiry: (1) knowledge of the signification of the relevant terms, (2) knowledge of the existence of the kind, and (3) ... More


God's Revolution: 1909–October 1921

Timothy Gorringe

in Karl Barth: Against Hegemony

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198752462
eISBN:
9780191695117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198752462.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Theology, History of Christianity

Barth's middle class family was well-established and his ancestors included several prominent nineteenth century theologians and preachers. For Barth, university was a matter of course and he ended ... More


Discovery

David F. Hendry

in Empirical Model Discovery and Theory Evaluation: Automatic Selection Methods in Econometrics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262028356
eISBN:
9780262324410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028356.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter begins by discussing some of the many ways in which discoveries have been made in physical and biological sciences. There seem to be seven common aspects of such discoveries and their ... More


Finding the Endless Frontier: Lessons from the Life Sciences Innovation System for Energy R&D

Iain M. Cockburn, Scott Stern, and Jack Zausner

in Accelerating Energy Innovation: Insights from Multiple Sectors

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226326832
eISBN:
9780226326856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226326856.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter reviews the roots of innovation in life sciences, an industry that has been the second-largest recipient of federal research funding (after defense), and which is justly celebrated for ... More


—Bacon: ‘the Art it Selfe of Invention and Discoverie’

in Sea-Mark: The Metaphorical Voyage, Spenser to Milton

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853235125
eISBN:
9781846317415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/UPO9781846317415.009
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

A constant association between voyaging and the progress of knowledge is recurrent in Francis Bacon's work. This is evident in the title-page of the Instauratio Magna (1620), in which two ships sail ... More


Growing a Patent Culture: Plant Hormones Research and the National Research Council

S. Tina Piper

in Putting Intellectual Property in its Place: Rights Discourses, Creative Labor, and the Everyday

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199336265
eISBN:
9780199351282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199336265.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law, Legal History

From the 1920s to the 1940s, scientists at Ottawa's National Research Council pursued an extensive program of research into the synthesis of plant hormones. Drawing on materials in the Canadian ... More


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