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Massive Resistance, Violence, and Southern Social Relations: The Little Rock, Arkansas, School Integration Crisis, 1954–1960

Karen S. Anderson

in Massive Resistance: Southern Opposition to the Second Reconstruction

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195177862
eISBN:
9780199870189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177862.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the massive resistance against desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas. It begins with a description of the efforts of organizations such as the Mother's League of Central High ... More


Tightening the Belt

Lily Geismer

in Don't Blame Us: Suburban Liberals and the Transformation of the Democratic Party

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157238
eISBN:
9781400852420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157238.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter places the debates over voluntary integration within the context of the Boston busing crisis and the national recession. Explorations of the dramatic events that surrounded the Boston ... More


Greater than Equal: African American Struggles for Schools and Citizenship in North Carolina, 1919-1965

Sarah Caroline Thuesen

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807839300
eISBN:
9781469612744
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9781469609706_Thuesen
Subject:
History, African-American History

During the half century preceding widespread school integration, black North Carolinians engaged in a dramatic struggle for equal educational opportunity as segregated schooling flourished. Drawing ... More


From Equalization to Integration: Struggles for Schools and Citizenship in the Age of Brown

Sarah Caroline Thuesen

in Greater than Equal: African American Struggles for Schools and Citizenship in North Carolina, 1919-1965

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807839300
eISBN:
9781469612744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9780807839300.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter shifts the focus from segregated education equalization to integration and improving school conditions. The chapter revisits the Brown case and extends its importance in the process of ... More


Conservative and Liberal Opposition to the New York City School-Integration Campaign

Clarence Taylor

in Civil Rights in New York City: From World War II to the Giuliani Era

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780823232895
eISBN:
9780823240876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823232895.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

One of the most successful periods for New York City liberalism was during the mayoralty of Robert F. Wagner (1954–1966). During these years, benefits for workers rapidly increased, public housing ... More


Advancing the Integration Agenda under the Obama Administration and Beyond

Chinh Q. Le

in Integrating Schools in a Changing Society: New Policies and Legal Options for a Multiracial Generation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807835128
eISBN:
9781469602585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807869208_frankenberg.8
Subject:
Education, History of Education

This chapter traces the history of civil rights enforcement, paying particular attention to the politicization that occurred under the administration of George W. Bush in the Office of Civil Rights ... More


The Effects of Socioeconomic School Integration Policies on Racial School Desegregation

Sean F. Reardon and Lori Rhodes

in Integrating Schools in a Changing Society: New Policies and Legal Options for a Multiracial Generation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807835128
eISBN:
9781469602585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807869208_frankenberg.14
Subject:
Education, History of Education

This chapter the effects socioeconomic school integration policies on racial school desegregation. It begins by presenting a brief historical overview of socioeconomic status-based student assignment ... More


A Powerful Weapon: Integration for Equality, 1940–1965

Zoë Burkholder

in An African American Dilemma: A History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780190605131
eISBN:
9780190605162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190605131.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 3 highlights a resurgence of northern Black support for school integration alongside the expanding civil rights movement. The outbreak of World War II created economic opportunities that drew ... More


Sleeping on Another Man's Wounds: The Battle for Integrated Schools in the 1950s

Brian D. Behnken

in Fighting Their Own Battles: Mexican Americans, African Americans, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Texas

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834787
eISBN:
9781469603193
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877876_behnken.7
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter shows how the battle for school integration in Texas in the 1950s stimulated a wide-ranging debate over voting rights, the desegregation of buses and movie theaters, and the ... More


Open Accommodations in the All American City

Tracy E. K’Meyer

in Civil Rights in the Gateway to the South: Louisville, Kentucky, 1945-1980

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813125398
eISBN:
9780813135274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813125398.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter focuses on an ordinance passed by the Louisville Board of Aldermen making it illegal to discriminate based on race in any place of business open to the general public, the first such ... More


Maintaining a “Commitment to Everyone”: Toward a Vision of Equitable Development in Urban Public Schooling

Linn Posey-Maddox

in When Middle-Class Parents Choose Urban Schools: Class, Race, and the Challenge of Equity in Public Education

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226120188
eISBN:
9780226120355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226120355.003.0007
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This final chapter highlights the need for critical and nuanced studies of urban school transformation, as well as evaluations of “progress” and “reform” in urban education that extend beyond ... More


An Armageddon of Righteousness: Integration for Justice, 1975–Present

Zoë Burkholder

in An African American Dilemma: A History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780190605131
eISBN:
9780190605162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190605131.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 5 documents a new and transformative vision of school integration that blended Black nationalist ideals of self-determination with the goal of racially diverse and inclusive schools. Black ... More


Conflict in the Community: Separation for Black Power, 1966–1974

Zoë Burkholder

in An African American Dilemma: A History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780190605131
eISBN:
9780190605162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190605131.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 4 charts the most contested phase of Black educational activism in the North as support for Black-controlled schools expanded alongside the Black Power movement, concurrent with the growth of ... More


From Neighborhood to City: The Formation of Jewish Metropolitan Urbanism

lila corwin berman

in Metropolitan Jews: Politics, Race, and Religion in Postwar Detroit

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226247830
eISBN:
9780226247977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226247977.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the ways in which Jews from the late 1950s through early 1960s developed a sense of identification with the city as a whole as a source of political, cultural, and spiritual ... More


Busing

Rob Christensen

in The Rise and Fall of the Branchhead Boys: North Carolina's Scott Family and the Era of Progressive Politics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781469651040
eISBN:
9781469651064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469651040.003.0013
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Although the U.S. Supreme Court had outlawed school segregation in 1954, it was not until 1969-70 that full school integration occurred in North Carolina. Scott presided over a troubled period marked ... More


The Equal Rights Struggle in the 1870s

Hugh Davis

in We Will Be Satisfied With Nothing Less: The African American Struggle for Equal Rights in the North during Reconstruction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450099
eISBN:
9780801463648
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450099.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter concentrates on the first half of the 1870s. It examines how, following the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, northern blacks sought to work within the Republican Party at the ... More


Caste Abolished: Integration for Freedom, 1840–1900

Zoë Burkholder

in An African American Dilemma: A History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780190605131
eISBN:
9780190605162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190605131.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 1 examines the earliest debates over school integration in Boston, Rochester, Cincinnati, Jamaica (New York), and a number of smaller towns. It argues that Black northerners viewed integrated ... More


From Brown to Meredith: The Long Struggle for School Desegregation in Louisville, Kentucky, 1954-2007

Tracy E. K'Meyer

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9781469607085
eISBN:
9781469612553
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9781469607092_KMeyer
Subject:
History, African-American History

When the Supreme Court overturned Louisville's local desegregation plan in 2007, the people of Jefferson County, Kentucky, faced the question of whether and how to maintain racial diversity in their ... More


Building an Integrated School

Pamela Grundy

in Color and Character: West Charlotte High and the American Struggle over Educational Equality

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781469636078
eISBN:
9781469636092
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469636078.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Traces the work done by West Charlotte's veteran African American teachers and staff members to mentor younger white teachers and administrators, and to ensure that the school's African American ... More


Sharing the World in Common with Others

Michaele L. Ferguson

in Sharing Democracy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199921584
eISBN:
9780199980413
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921584.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, American Politics

Underlying the two views of democracy in terms of commonality and political freedom are two different mental pictures of how people share. This chapter draws out these two mental pictures from a ... More


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