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Scanning Probe Microscopy

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780198830252
eISBN:
9780191868665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830252.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) scans a fine tip close to a surface and measures the tunneling current (STM) or force (SFM), based on many possible tip-surface interactions. STM provides atomic ... More


Analytical techniques for studying and characterizing polymorphs

Joel Bernstein

in Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199236565
eISBN:
9780191707940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236565.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter reviews the variety of analytical methods used in the investigation and characterization of molecular solids in general, and varieties of crystal forms in particular. The fundamental ... More


Essential Tensions and Representational Strategies

Cyrus C. M. Mody

in Representation in Scientific Practice Revisited

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262525381
eISBN:
9780262319157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262525381.003.0011
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

In efforts to advance themselves and their work, scientists balance a tension between innovation and tradition: this is what Thomas Kuhn called the “essential tension” in science. Yet, in many cases ... More


The surface of ice

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Especially at temperatures approaching the melting point, the surface of ice has properties significantly different from the bulk, and the surface is sometimes referred to as having a ‘liquid-like ... More


Fundamentals

John Orton and Tom Foxon

in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Short History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199695829
eISBN:
9780191748844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695829.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter concentrates on semiconductor surfaces and incorporation of atoms from molecular beams. RHEED was used to study the reconstruction of surfaces. Mass spectrometry was used to measure ... More


Experimental probes of graphene

E. L. Wolf

in Graphene: A New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199645862
eISBN:
9780191767852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

After brief review of important electrical transport measurements, optical and Raman methods, techniques of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy, ... More


Experimental Methods

Vladimir Z. Kresin, Sergei G. Ovchinnikov, and Stuart A. Wolf

in Superconducting State: Mechanisms and Materials

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780198845331
eISBN:
9780191880582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845331.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In this chapter, several of the most important experimental techniques are described. These have been used to probe the most fundamental properties of the superconducting state: the energy gap and ... More


How Symbolic and Iconic Languages Bridge the Two Worlds of the Chemist: A Case Study from Contemporary Bioorganic Chemistry

Emily R. Grosholz and Roald Hoffmann

in Roald Hoffmann on the Philosophy, Art, and Science of Chemistry

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199755905
eISBN:
9780197563069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199755905.003.0021
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

Chemists move habitually and with credible success—if sometimes unreflectively—between two worlds. One is the laboratory, with its macroscopic powders, crystals, solutions, intractable sludge, ... More


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