*Kazuo Fujikawa and Hiroshi Suzuki*

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198529132
- eISBN:
- 9780191712821
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529132.003.0007
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses the quantum anomaly associated with the scale transformation of space-time coordinates, or the transformation generally called the Weyl transformation. In flat space-time, this ...
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This chapter discusses the quantum anomaly associated with the scale transformation of space-time coordinates, or the transformation generally called the Weyl transformation. In flat space-time, this anomaly is related to the renormalization group and the calculation of the $β$ function in the renormalization group equation is related to the calculation of the Weyl anomaly. In other words, the renormalization group equation is regarded as an expression of the Weyl anomaly in terms of Green’s functions. The calculation of the one-loop functions in QED and QCD by means of the Jacobians for the Weyl symmetry is illustrated. The Weyl anomalies in curved space-time are briefly explained. An improved finite energy-momentum tensor in renormalizable theory is also mentioned based on an analysis of the Weyl anomaly.Less

This chapter discusses the quantum anomaly associated with the scale transformation of space-time coordinates, or the transformation generally called the Weyl transformation. In flat space-time, this anomaly is related to the renormalization group and the calculation of the $β$ function in the renormalization group equation is related to the calculation of the Weyl anomaly. In other words, the renormalization group equation is regarded as an expression of the Weyl anomaly in terms of Green’s functions. The calculation of the one-loop functions in QED and QCD by means of the Jacobians for the Weyl symmetry is illustrated. The Weyl anomalies in curved space-time are briefly explained. An improved finite energy-momentum tensor in renormalizable theory is also mentioned based on an analysis of the Weyl anomaly.

*Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz*

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- January 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199577224
- eISBN:
- 9780191722943
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The present chapter is an introductory account of the basic concepts and important consequences of conformal symmetry, i.e. the invariance under local scale transformations, in field theories ...
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The present chapter is an introductory account of the basic concepts and important consequences of conformal symmetry, i.e. the invariance under local scale transformations, in field theories characterizing critical behaviour. The goal is to catalogue universality classes as a list of possible values of critical exponents and to find restrictions on the functional forms of correlation functions, which satisfy conformal Ward identities. From a mathematics standpoint, conformal symmetry applies to continuum theories, and therefore its obvious application to critical phenomena is formulated in the language of field theory. The energy-momentum tensor plays a fundamental role in defining the conformal generators that satisfy the Virasoro algebra, and any conformal field theory is characterized by the central charge a number that is important to classify critical field theories. One of the most remarkable applications of conformal field theory is found in the analysis of finite-size effects.Less

The present chapter is an introductory account of the basic concepts and important consequences of conformal symmetry, i.e. the invariance under local scale transformations, in field theories characterizing critical behaviour. The goal is to catalogue universality classes as a list of possible values of critical exponents and to find restrictions on the functional forms of correlation functions, which satisfy conformal Ward identities. From a mathematics standpoint, conformal symmetry applies to continuum theories, and therefore its obvious application to critical phenomena is formulated in the language of field theory. The energy-momentum tensor plays a fundamental role in defining the conformal generators that satisfy the Virasoro algebra, and any conformal field theory is characterized by the central charge a number that is important to classify critical field theories. One of the most remarkable applications of conformal field theory is found in the analysis of finite-size effects.

*Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz*

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- January 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199577224
- eISBN:
- 9780191722943
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

As an introduction to the physics of phase transitions and critical phenomena, this chapter explains a number of basic and fundamental ideas such as phases, phase transitions, phase diagrams, ...
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As an introduction to the physics of phase transitions and critical phenomena, this chapter explains a number of basic and fundamental ideas such as phases, phase transitions, phase diagrams, universality, and critical phenomena. Especially important is the concept of order parameter, a quantity that measures the degree of asymmetry in the broken symmetry phase. Intuitive accounts are given to the concepts of coarse-graining, and scale and renormalization group transformations, which are powerful, systematic tools to analyze critical behaviour of macroscopic systems. Also explained are several spin and lattice gas model systems, on the basis of which phase transitions and critical phenomena will be studied.Less

As an introduction to the physics of phase transitions and critical phenomena, this chapter explains a number of basic and fundamental ideas such as phases, phase transitions, phase diagrams, universality, and critical phenomena. Especially important is the concept of order parameter, a quantity that measures the degree of asymmetry in the broken symmetry phase. Intuitive accounts are given to the concepts of coarse-graining, and scale and renormalization group transformations, which are powerful, systematic tools to analyze critical behaviour of macroscopic systems. Also explained are several spin and lattice gas model systems, on the basis of which phase transitions and critical phenomena will be studied.