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The Law of Minority Attrition

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The more important levels have fewer positions, and the share of minorities goes down. The law of minority attrition is a quantitatively predictive logical model that expresses it more precisely. A ... More


Rubber Eraser

Nicholas P. Money

in Triumph of the Fungi: A Rotten History

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189711
eISBN:
9780199790265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189711.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

The leaf blight of rubber caused by the fungus, Microcyclus ulei, bankrupted the infamous “rubber barons” of South America in the 19th century, destroyed the economy of boom towns along the Amazon, ... More


The Tropical Cost of the Automotive Age: Corporate Rubber Empires and the Rainforest

Richard P. Tucker

in Insatiable Appetite: The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520220874
eISBN:
9780520923812
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220874.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter is concerned with the rubber industry. It reveals that rubber can be commercially grown either on vast one-crop plantations or as the primary cash-earning commodity on multicrop ... More


REPRINT THE THEORY OF RUBBER ELASTICITY

R. T. Deam and S. F. Edwards

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter reprints a paper which attempts to improve upon several weaknesses in the classical theories of rubber elasticity. It develops a formulation of the statistical thermodynamics of ... More


SAM EDWARDS AND THE STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF RUBBER

Paul M. Goldbart and Nigel Goldenfeld

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The statistical mechanics of cross-linked macromolecules requires simultaneous treatment of random polymer configurations, excluded-volume interactions, and the quenched disorder of the cross-links, ... More


A SCIENTIST FOR ALL SEASONS

Sir Geoffrey Allen and F.R.S. F.R. Eng.

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0029
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes the history of Sam Edwards within polymer physics from the early days of his exposure, through his insights in seeing what is important, bringing key new insights, inspiring ... More


China’s Rubber Industry

Parks M. Coble

in Chinese Capitalists in Japan's New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937-1945

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520232686
eISBN:
9780520928299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520232686.003.0010
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter describes the experiences of the rubber industry in China during the Sino-Japanese War. It discusses the specific experiences of the Da Zhonghua Rubber Company and the Zhengtai Rubber ... More


Lincoln's Deathbed in Art and Memory: The ‘‘Rubber Room’’ Phenomenon

Harold Holzer and Frank J. Williams

in The Lincoln Assassination: Crime and Punishment, Myth and Memory A Lincoln Forum Book

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232260
eISBN:
9780823240784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232260.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter explores the iconography of Lincoln's death. It shows how artists of the day portrayed—and routinely exaggerated—the scene inside the small boarding house bedroom to which the president ... More


Rubber and the Making of Vietnam: An Ecological History, 1897-1975

Michitake Aso

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781469637150
eISBN:
9781469637174
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469637150.001.0001
Subject:
History, Environmental History

How can a single tree species affect human projects on the scale of empires and nations? Rubber and the Making of Vietnam explores this question for the rubber tree in Vietnamese history. Dating back ... More


Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

C. Michael Roland

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book describes the relaxation dynamics of rubbery materials, with the objective of providing a molecular basis for many physical properties. As the term comprises any amorphous, flexible ... More


I Fear I Shall Never Leave This Island: Life in a Civil War Prison

David R. Bush

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780813037448
eISBN:
9780813042305
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813037448.001.0001
Subject:
History, Military History

There was no standard treatment for prisoners-of-war (POW) during the American Civil War by either the Union or the Confederacy. Each side struggled with the incarceration and civilized treatment of ... More


Insatiable Appetite: The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World

Richard Tucker

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520220874
eISBN:
9780520923812
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220874.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

In the late 1800s American entrepreneurs became participants in the 400-year history of European economic and ecological hegemony in the tropics. Beginning as buyers in the tropical ports of the ... More


Networks

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The two approaches to analyzing the large strain behavior of rubbery networks are phenomenologically, using strain-energy functions drawn from continuum mechanics, and molecular models, which apply ... More


I Do Not Buy My Freedom Because I Am Not a Fool: Environmental Creolization and the Erection of Communities in the Senzalas, 1850–1888

Oscar de la Torre

in The People of the River: Nature and Identity in Black Amazonia, 1835-1945

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781469643243
eISBN:
9781469643267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469643243.003.0004
Subject:
History, Latin American History

The first part of the chapter analyzes the different paths by which slaves acquired environmental knowledge: importing skills and strategies from equatorial Africa, acquiring knowledge when doing ... More


Where is Your Letter?:: (August 16–December 13, 1863)

David R. Bush

in I Fear I Shall Never Leave This Island: Life in a Civil War Prison

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780813037448
eISBN:
9780813042305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813037448.003.0003
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter explains the rules for sending and receiving mail as a prisoner-of-war. Prisoners were restricted in how much mail they could write and receive. The interaction between Wesley and Kate ... More


Let’s Do the Twist

Nicholas Mee

in Celestial Tapestry: The Warp and Weft of Art and Mathematics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851950
eISBN:
9780191886690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851950.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Topology is the study of the most fundamental characteristics of shape—the properties that are unaltered when bodies are stretched, twisted, or otherwise distorted. The London Underground map, ... More


A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: The Cauchero of the Amazonian Rubber Groves

Leopoldo M. Bernucci

in Intimate Frontiers: A Literary Geography of the Amazon

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781786941831
eISBN:
9781789623598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781786941831.003.0006
Subject:
History, Latin American History

This essay explores the iconic figure of the "rubber baron," during the rubber boom era (1890-1920) in the Amazon. Portrayed by travelers and fiction writer as Janus-faced, the rubber baron can be ... More


Empirical and Methodological Problems in Developing a GIS Database for Yanomanö Tribesmen Located in Remote Areas

Ken McGwire and Napoleon A. Chagnon

in Anthropology, Space, and Geographic Information Systems

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195085754
eISBN:
9780197560495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195085754.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Archaeological Methodology and Techniques

For almost thirty years Chagnon has been studying the settlement patterns of a large cluster of remote Yanomamö communities in southern Venezuela, documenting ... More


Militarizing Rubber

Michitake Aso

in Rubber and the Making of Vietnam: An Ecological History, 1897-1975

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781469637150
eISBN:
9781469637174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469637150.003.0008
Subject:
History, Environmental History

The extreme violence brought to bear on the Vietnamese society and environment by the American war machine during the 1960s meant that measures taken by South Vietnamese leaders ended up sustaining ... More


Relationships between Stress and Strain

Burak Erman and James E. Mark

in Structures and Properties of Rubberlike Networks

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195082371
eISBN:
9780197560433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195082371.003.0007
Subject:
Chemistry, Materials Chemistry

In the first section of this chapter, the relationships between the Helmholtz free energy, the stress tensor, and the deformation tensor are given for uniaxial stress. ... More


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