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PsyCap Resiliency: Bouncing Back and Beyond

Fred Luthans, Carolyn M. Youssef, and Bruce J. Avolio

in Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187526
eISBN:
9780199789863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187526.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

This chapter first provides the historical background on the mainly clinically-oriented work on resiliency. PsyCap resiliency is defined as not only this traditionally recognized ability to bounce ... More


Understanding Risk and Protective Factors

David P. Farrington and Brandon C. Welsh

in Saving Children from a Life of Crime: Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195304091
eISBN:
9780199944071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304091.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter provides definitions of risk factors and protective factors against delinquency and later offending and discusses some key issues arising in risk factor research, particularly regarding ... More


Risk and Variation

Christopher Dye

in The Population Biology of Tuberculosis

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154626
eISBN:
9781400866571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154626.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines the factors that affect the risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the risk of developing tuberculosis. Exposure to infection depends on a wide range of ... More


Prediction and Risk/Needs Assessments

Robert D. Hoge, Gina Vincent, and Laura Guy

in From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy and Prevention

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199828166
eISBN:
9780199951208
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199828166.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

The focus of the chapter is on available knowledge regarding the prediction of early adult offending from information available during the early juvenile years. Standardized screening and assessment ... More


Mendelian randomization: the contribution of genetic epidemiology to elucidating environmentally modifiable causes of disease

George Davey Smith and Shah Ebrahim

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0021
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Conventional risk factor epidemiology — directly studying environmentally modifiable exposures that may influence disease risk — and genetic epidemiology have similarities and differences. The ... More


Street Gang Patterns and Policies

Malcolm W. Klein and Cheryl L. Maxson

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195163445
eISBN:
9780199943340
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195163445.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

In the past two decades, many prevention and suppression programs have been initiated on a national and local level to combat street gangs—but what do we really know about them? Why do youths join ... More


Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Michael Marmot and Paul Elliott (eds)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide affecting millions of people in both developed and developing countries. The dual aims of this book are to review the well-established ... More


Understanding Child Maltreatment: An Ecological and Developmental Perspective

Maria Scannapieco and Kelli Connell-Carrick

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195156782
eISBN:
9780199864164
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156782.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

This book analyzes in a developmental context understanding, assessing, and treating child maltreatment within the ecological framework. This framework is used to help systematically organize and ... More


The use of family history in public health practice: the epidemiologic view

Rodolfo Valdez, Muin J. Khoury, and Paula W. Yoon

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0029
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

With the advent of molecular genetics, the accelerated mapping of human genes to specific chromosome locations was made possible without the use of detailed pedigrees. Moreover, following the ... More


Evaluation of predictive genetic tests for common diseases: bridging epidemiological, clinical, and public health measures

A. Cecile J. W. Janssens, Marta Gwinn, and Muin J. Khoury

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0022
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses how clinical epidemiologic concepts and methods can be used to assess whether one or more genetic variants (e.g. genome profiles) can be used to predict risk for human ... More


Obesity and Body Composition

RACHEL BALLARD-BARBASH, CHRISTINE FRIEDENREICH, MARTHA SLATTERY, and INGER THUNE

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0022
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an overview of the state of scientific evidence for the association between obesity-related risk factors and cancer. Data provide convincing evidence of a positive association ... More


Risk Factors for Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes

Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, Dana Dabelea, Jean M. Lawrence, James B. Meigs, and Karen Teff

in Diabetes Public Health: From Data to Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195317060
eISBN:
9780199871544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195317060.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides an overview of key risk factors for type 2 diabetes, beginning with metabolic risk factors, including those that are related directly to obesity, followed by discussions of ... More


Interventions and Control

Christopher Dye

in The Population Biology of Tuberculosis

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154626
eISBN:
9781400866571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154626.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter considers a variety of tuberculosis control measures that can change the rates of transition between states of health. Without a better understanding of who is most at risk of infection ... More


Sick individuals, sick populations: The societal determinants of chronic diseases: What are the social causes of rising chronic diseases?

David Stuckler, Karen Siegel, Roberto De Vogli, and Sanjay Basu

in Sick Societies: Responding to the global challenge of chronic disease

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199574407
eISBN:
9780191731204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574407.003.0027
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter examines why chronic diseases have risen so markedly over the past several decades. It begins by assessing the contribution of individual risk factors to the disease burden. It then ... More


Saving Children from a Life of Crime: Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions

David P. Farrington and Brandon C. Welsh

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195304091
eISBN:
9780199944071
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304091.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

After decades of rigorous study in the United States and across the Western world, a great deal is known about the early risk factors for offending. High impulsiveness, low attainment, criminal ... More


Understanding Persistent Offending: Linking Developmental Psychology with Research on the Criminal Career

Joanne Savage

in The Development of Persistent Criminality

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195310313
eISBN:
9780199871384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310313.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In recent years we have come to know that a small percentage of individuals commit about half of all the crime that occurs. This finding has inspired a significant amount of work in the area of ... More


Racial and Ethnic Differences in Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Youth Violence

James Herbert Williams, Charlotte Lyn Bright, and Granger Petersen

in Violence in Context: Current Evidence on Risk, Protection, and Prevention

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195369595
eISBN:
9780199865215
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369595.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

While researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and service providers ask increasingly for solutions to the enduring problems of youth violence, key issues have gone unaddressed. For example, ... More


Stroke

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and mortality in the United States and other industrialized countries. This chapter discusses important issues that arise in the enumeration of stroke and how ... More


Current status: six established major risk factors – and low risk

J. Stamler, J. D. Neaton, D. B. Garside, and M. L. Daviglus

in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter has two interrelated purposes: to update information on the six established major coronary heart disease–cardiovascular disease (CHD–CVD) risk factors, their impact and importance, ... More


Risk Factors and Indicators Involved in Alienation

Barbara Jo Fidler, Nicholas Bala, and Michael A. Saini

in Children Who Resist Postseparation Parental Contact: A Differential Approach for Legal and Mental Health Professionals

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199895496
eISBN:
9780199980086
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199895496.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

As new research begins to emerge regarding the factors associated with alienation, it is important to delineate the correlates of alienation. This chapter reviews the current research regarding risk ... More


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