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The basal ganglia

Edmund T. Rolls

in Brain Computations: What and How

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198871101
eISBN:
9780191914157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198871101.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

The basal ganglia include the striatum (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum) which receive from all cortical areas, and which project via the globus pallidus and substantia nigra back to the ... More


Reward-Dependent Learning

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

In the third chapter, reward dependent instrumental learning and its computational modelling is explained. Reward prediction errors are encoded by phasic dopamine release and specific paradigms ... More


Orbitofrontal cortex output pathways: cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and dopamine

Edmund T. Rolls

in The Orbitofrontal Cortex

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198845997
eISBN:
9780191881237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845997.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The medial orbitofrontal cortex projects reward-related information to the pregenual cingulate cortex, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex projects punishment and non-reward information to the ... More


There Are No Killer Apps but Connecting Neural Activity to Behavior through Computation Is Still a Good Idea

P. Read Montague

in Computational Psychiatry: New Perspectives on Mental Illness

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035422
eISBN:
9780262337854
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035422.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The quest to understand the relationship between neural activity and behavior has been ongoing for well over a hundred years. Although research based on the stimulus-and-response approach to ... More


Fast and Slow Learning in Human-Like Intelligence

Denis Mareschal and Sam Blakeman

in Human-Like Machine Intelligence

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780198862536
eISBN:
9780191895333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862536.003.0016
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

In this chapter we review the extent to which rapid one-short learning or fast-mapping exists in human learning. We find that it exists in both children and adults, but that it is almost always ... More


The Freedom to Choose and Drug Addiction

P. Read Montague

in Moral Psychology, Volume 4: Free Will and Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262026680
eISBN:
9780262321488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026680.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Montague proposes a computational model to understand addiction. His key idea is a special kind of reward prediction error signal in addicts. In his comments, Yaffe discusses what Montague's work on ... More


The Decision-Making Engine

Thomas Boraud

in How the Brain Makes Decisions

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198824367
eISBN:
9780191863202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824367.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter presents an upgrade of the neural network by implementing the reward prediction error. It then compares the final product with the actor-critic model and discusses the similarities and ... More


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