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The Politics of Public Service Bargains: Reward, Competency, Loyalty - and Blame

Christopher Hood and Martin Lodge

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199269679
eISBN:
9780191604096
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019926967X.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The traditional understandings that structure the relationships between public servants and the wider political system are said to have undergone considerable change. But what are these formalized ... More


Reward in Public Service Bargains: Pyramids, Noblesse Oblige, Turkey Races, and Lotteries of Life

Christopher Hood and Martin Lodge

in The Politics of Public Service Bargains: Reward, Competency, Loyalty - and Blame

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199269679
eISBN:
9780191604096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019926967X.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter explores the reward dimension of public service bargains. It analyzes different forms and aspects of reward and then explores four specific types of reward bargains: pyramids and ... More


Emotion Explained

Edmund T. Rolls

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The book links the analysis of the brain mechanisms of emotion and motivation to the wider context of what emotions are, what their functions are, how emotions evolved, and the larger issue of why ... More


Introducing Public Service Bargains

Christopher Hood and Martin Lodge

in The Politics of Public Service Bargains: Reward, Competency, Loyalty - and Blame

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199269679
eISBN:
9780191604096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019926967X.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter introduces the notion of Public Service Bargain (PSB) and points to variations in its three dimensions: reward, competency, and loyalty and responsibility. Based on these variations, it ... More


Putting the Pieces Together

Christopher Hood and Martin Lodge

in The Politics of Public Service Bargains: Reward, Competency, Loyalty - and Blame

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199269679
eISBN:
9780191604096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019926967X.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The first part of this chapter brings together the earlier analysis and considers combinations of public service bargains, suggesting there are many possible combinations, but also some elements that ... More


Pursuing the Resolution of the Funding Problem

Arad Reisberg

in Derivative Actions and Corporate Governance

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199204892
eISBN:
9780191709487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199204892.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter examines four possible avenues to rectify the economic impediments to derivative actions. The first two focus on short-term solutions and involve the company and the claimant ... More


Three Faces of Desire

Timothy Schroeder

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172379
eISBN:
9780199849987
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172379.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Desires lead to actions, influence feelings, and determine what counts as a reward. Recent empirical evidence shows that these three aspects of desire stem from a common biological origin. Informed ... More


Racial Stigma: Toward a New Paradigm for Discrimination Theory

Glenn C. Loury

in Understanding Poverty

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195305197
eISBN:
9780199783519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195305191.003.0027
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This essay examines interconnections between “race” and economic inequality in the United States, focusing on the case of African Americans. It is crucially important to distinguish between racial ... More


Responsibility and Atonement

Richard Swinburne

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248491
eISBN:
9780191598555
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248490.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

When we do good or harm to each other, we acquire merit or guilt; deserve praise or blame, reward or punishment, and may need to make atonement. Others may need to forgive us, or show mercy to us. ... More


Exploitation versus Real Freedom

Philippe Van Parijs

in Real Freedom for All: What (if Anything) Can Justify Capitalism?

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293576
eISBN:
9780191600074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293577.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

By providing a modest income even to those who do not want to work, is one not institutionalizing the exploitation of hard workers by free riders? There would definitely be ‘Lockean exploitation’, ... More


Political Jurisprudence

Martin Shapiro

in On Law, Politics, and Judicialization

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256488
eISBN:
9780191600234
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256489.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This paper was originally published in the Kentucky Law Journal in 1964, and it is the first of two that elaborate a relatively general approach to judicial politics, which emphasizes the underlying ... More


The Status Quo

Emilie M. Hafner-Burton

in Making Human Rights a Reality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155357
eISBN:
9781400846283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155357.003.0008
Subject:
Law, EU Law

This chapter considers the status quo—the punishments and rewards used by steward states as part of their foreign policy to advance human rights today. Although they are not the only stewards, the ... More


Nongovernmental Organizations

Emilie M. Hafner-Burton

in Making Human Rights a Reality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155357
eISBN:
9781400846283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155357.003.0009
Subject:
Law, EU Law

This chapter examines how engagement with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)—such as local chapters of multinational human rights organizations and especially homegrown NGOs—can lead to ... More


Liking, wanting, learning

Anjan Chatterjee

in The Aesthetic Brain: How We Evolved to Desire Beauty and Enjoy Art

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199811809
eISBN:
9780199369546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199811809.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

There are distinct brain systems that organize our likings and our wantings. How does the cycle of making predictions and learning from the experience of mismatched expectations and rewards play out ... More


Costs and Payoffs in Perceptual Research

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Perceptual researchers face the problem of validating a subject's responses—that is, of finding persuasive reasons to treat words or other acts as in some sense faithful representations of ... More


Behavioral Functions of Dopamine Neurons

Philippe N. Tobler

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter reviews the extracellular studies of dopamine neurons in behaving animals. Topics covered include motor functions of dopamine neurons, reward functions of dopamine neurons, reward ... More


Paradoxes, projections, and perspectives of CTA research

F. Bermúdez-Rattoni, J. Bures, and T. Yamamoto

in Conditioned Taste Aversion: Memory of a Special Kind

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523475
eISBN:
9780191712678
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523475.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

The fact that the CTA triggering stimulus is sometimes forgotten resembles Șblindsightș, when a person with postgeniculate lesion denies being able to see anything, but avoids rapidly approaching ... More


Learning theory and anxiety

Jeffrey A. Gray and Neil McNaughton

in The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An enquiry into the function of the septo-hippocampal system

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198522713
eISBN:
9780191712517
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

The chapter reviews two-process theories of learning, and justifies the equation of reward with punishment omission and of punishment with reward omission. Learning is presented as a means of ... More


A theory of the behavioural inhibition system

Jeffrey A. Gray and Neil McNaughton

in The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An enquiry into the function of the septo-hippocampal system

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198522713
eISBN:
9780191712517
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter presents the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) as mediating between a Fight-Flight-Freezing system (FFFS) that controls pure avoidance (of punishment or frustration), and a Behavioural ... More


 Single Neuron Activity Underlying Behavior‐Guiding Rules

Jonathan Wallis

in Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195314274
eISBN:
9780199786695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314274.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

A key part of goal‐directed behavior is the use of behavior‐guiding concepts and rules—an ability that is believed to have coevolved with the frontal lobe. The first part of the chapter examines the ... More


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