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Exit from Early Retirement: Paradigm Shifts, Policy Reversals, and Reform Obstacles

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Governments have realized the negative impact of early retirement on social expenditures and labor costs, responding with a paradigm shift away from passive labor market policies. Governments seek to ... More


The Protection‐Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

There are multiple pathways to early exit from work: early pensions (retirement age before 65), flexible and partial pensions, special preretirement schemes, long-term unemployment benefits, and ... More


Ever Earlier Retirement: Comparing Employment Trajectories

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter analyzes the main trends and cross-national variations in early exit from work for eight European countries, Japan, and the USA. Participation levels and employment rates of older workers ... More


Chapter Chapter The Role of 401(k) Accumulations in Providing Future Retirement Income

Sarah Holden and Jack VanDerhei

in Restructuring Retirement Risks

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199204656
eISBN:
9780191603822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199204659.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

As defined contribution plans are increasingly being offered as the primary employer-sponsored pension, it is of interest to ask whether these accumulations are likely to yield sufficient retirement ... More


The Evolution of Public Sector Pension Plans in the United States

Robert L. Clark, Lee A. Craig, and Neveen Ahmed

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0014
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Municipal governments in the United States began offering retirement plans for their workers in the mid-nineteenth century, and state governments followed in the early twentieth century. As these ... More


How Elastic Is the Response of the Retirement-Age Labor Supply? Evidence from the 1993 French Pension Reform

Antoine Bozio

in Pension Strategies in Europe and the United States

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062725
eISBN:
9780262272575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062725.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses the key parameter of labor-supply elasticity of older workers using the 1993 pension reform in France and the implications of the long-run effects of the 1993 and 2003 reforms. ... More


China: Potential Directions for Reform

Nicholas Barr and Peter Diamond

in Reforming Pensions: Principles and Policy Choices

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311303
eISBN:
9780199893461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311303.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter sets out a series of recommendations to strengthen the pension system of China in ways compatible with China's capacity to implement reforms effectively. It first discusses overall ... More


The Effect of Social Security on Retirement in the United States

Courtney Coile and Jonathan Gruber

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Micro-Estimation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226310183
eISBN:
9780226309989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226309989.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter examines the impact of Social Security (SS) on retirement, taking advantage of newly available data on retirement behavior and methodological advances in retirement modeling over the ... More


Twenty‐First‐Century Pensions Issues

Nicholas Barr

in The Welfare State as Piggy Bank: Information, Risk, Uncertainty, and the Role of the State

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246595
eISBN:
9780191595936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246599.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Two sets of issues will become increasingly salient. The first part of the chapter discusses strategies to address population ageing, with heavy emphasis on two policies – increasing economic growth ... More


Micro-Modeling of Retirement in Belgium

Arnaud Dellis, Raphaël Desmet, Alain Jousten, and Sergio Perelman

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Micro-Estimation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226310183
eISBN:
9780226309989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226309989.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The widespread use of various early retirement programs makes Belgium the country with the lowest average retirement age in the Western world, which is approximately fifty-seven years old for men. ... More


Life-cycle Asset Allocation Strategies and the Distribution of 401(k) Retirement Wealth

James M. Poterba, Joshua Rauh, Steven F. Venti, and David A. Wise

in Developments in the Economics of Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226903354
eISBN:
9780226903361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226903361.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter presents evidence on the distribution of balances in 401(k)-type retirement saving accounts under various asset allocation strategies that investors might choose. In addition to a range ... More


Pension Strategies in Europe and the United States

Robert Fenge, Georges de Menil, and Pierre Pestieau (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062725
eISBN:
9780262272575
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062725.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This book discusses the demographic challenges facing pension systems in the United States and some developed countries in Europe. Factors affecting the challenges include the speed level of the ... More


Introduction: Ignoring the Obvious

Judith Ann Trolander

in From Sun Cities to the Villages: A History of Active Adult, Age-restricted Communities

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813036045
eISBN:
9780813038988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813036045.003.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This study focuses specifically on the development of age-restricted, active adult communities, not naturally occurring retirement communities, or age-targeted retirement communities. Neither type of ... More


Retirement and the Hidden Epidemic: The Complex Link Between Aging, Work Disengagement, and Substance Misuse and What To Do About It

Peter A. Bamberger and Samuel B. Bacharach

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199374120
eISBN:
9780190216894
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199374120.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Substance misuse among older adults in the United States is a major hidden health threat, with broad implications for the welfare and quality of life of those misusing alcohol and drugs, as well as ... More


Sweden: an extended working life policy that overlooks gender considerations

Clary Krekula, Lars-Gunnar Engström, and Aida Alvinius

in Gender, Ageing and Extended Working Life: Cross-National Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781447325116
eISBN:
9781447325161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447325116.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Gerontology and Ageing

The Swedish government policy on extended working life has since its introduction in the mid-1990s aimed to lower the costs of the public pension system and to reduce the financial burden for ... More


Demographics and the Political Sustainability of Pay-as-You-Go Social Security

Theodore C. Bergstrom and John L. Hartman

in Pension Strategies in Europe and the United States

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062725
eISBN:
9780262272575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062725.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses the factors that affect the political support for pay-as-you-go (PAYG) retirement plans in the U.S., including the impact of changes in social security benefits on the value of ... More


Historical Background

Abhinav Chandrachud

in The Informal Constitution: Unwritten Criteria in Selecting Judges for the Supreme Court of India

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198098560
eISBN:
9780199082971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198098560.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Legal History

This chapter analyzes historical legislative debates surrounding the establishment of the Federal Court during British rule in India, and debates in the Constituent Assembly about who would get to ... More


Reforming Pensions

Anders Åslund and Simeon Djankov

in Europe's Growth Challenge

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780190499204
eISBN:
9780190499235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190499204.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Europe is aging rapidly, and the old need pensions and care. As a share of the active population aged 15−64, the European population aged 65 or above is projected to increase from 28 percent in 2016 ... More


Saving Social Security

William G. Gale

in Fiscal Therapy: Balancing Today's Needs with Tomorrow's Obligations

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2019
ISBN:
9780190645410
eISBN:
9780190939175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190645410.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare, Economic Systems

Social Security is among the nation’s most popular and successful programs, as discussed in Chapter 8, providing crucial income every year for tens of millions of retirees, surviving spouses, ... More


Demographic Change, Relative Factor Prices, International Capital Flows, and Their Differential Effects on the Welfare of Generations

Dirk Krüger and Axel Börsch-Supan

Alexander Ludwig (ed.)

in Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226076485
eISBN:
9780226076508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226076508.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter evaluates the welfare consequences of the demographic transition per se and not just the alternative Social Security reform scenarios, as well as in the analysis of the distributional ... More


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