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Visual Evoked Responses

Jay A. Liveson and Dong M. Ma

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Visual evoked potentials provide a quantitative measure of the visual system. The function measured includes that of the optic nerve, through the optic chiasm and tract, to the lateral geniculate ... More


Classification of binocular disparity

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins by describing coordinate systems that can be used to measure visual directions from a single eye. It considers how interocular differences in direction of a single point can be ... More


Motion Vision and Eye Movements

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers motion vision and eye movements. It analyzes the general features and properties of motion vision that apply to all animals and examines how these are tuned for the visual ... More


Neural Circuits: Spinal Cord, Retina, Invertebrate Systems

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

In the 1950s, the microelectrode opened the door not only to understanding the properties of the individual nerve cell, but also to how they are connected; how they “talk” to each other. Two ... More


Optics

Russell L. De Valois and Karen K. De Valois

in Spatial Vision

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195066579
eISBN:
9780199872220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195066579.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the factors that affect ability to perceive spatial relations in the visual world. These include the nature of light, image-forming characteristics of the eye, photochemical ... More


Retinogeniculate Anatomy and Physiology

Russell L. De Valois and Karen K. De Valois

in Spatial Vision

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195066579
eISBN:
9780199872220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195066579.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The eye contains not only the optical elements that perform the critical task of forming an image of the visual world at the level of the receptors, but also the receptors that transduce light energy ... More


Neural Mechanisms Underlying Visual Motion Detection in Birds

Douglas R. Wylie and Andrew N. Iwaniuk

in How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195334654
eISBN:
9780199933167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334654.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a detailed account of how the pigeon brain detects moving objects, derives depth information from motion parallax, and perceives self-motion. All of these functions are ... More


Circadian Visual System of Mammals

Lawrence P. Morin

in How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195334654
eISBN:
9780199933167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334654.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews research on how the visual system of mammals participates in regulating the day-night cycle. Knowledge about the circadian visual system is evolving rapidly, especially where it ... More


Vision: How It Works and What Can Go Wrong

John E. Dowling and Jr. Joseph L. Dowling

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034616
eISBN:
9780262333566
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034616.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The visual system is our best understood sensory system, and for humans vision is paramount. Surveys indicate people fear blindness more than any other sensory disability. Most visual problems ... More


Brightness and Contrast

Nigel Daw

in How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

The lightness of an object is determined in relation to the objects around it. The overall illumination of the scene is ignored, and so are shadows falling across the object, and curvature of the ... More


Retinal Cellular Metabolism and its Regulation and Control

Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Paula K Yu, Er-Ning Su, Xinghuai Sun, Wenyi Guo, William H Morgan, Xiao-Bo Yu, and Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The retina is an extension of the brain with a high functional activity and high metabolic rate but with only a limited blood supply. Consequently there is a delicate balance between high metabolic ... More


Normal and Defective Colour Vision

John D. Mollon, Joel Pokorny, and Ken Knoblauch (eds)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The topic of colour vision is one that integrates research from psychology, neuroscience, biology, ophthalmology, physics, and genetics. How do we make sense of colour in the world, and how has such ... More


Peter H. Schiller

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography: Volume 7

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195396133
eISBN:
9780199918409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195396133.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Peter H. Schiller, in collaboration with numerous investigators, has carried out research using psychophysical methods, single-cell recordings, microstimulation and pharmacological manipulations. The ... More


The Anatomist’s Eye

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

After an adventurous boyhood, Ramon y Cajal is persuaded by his father to study medicine. Inspired by the results of the Golgi staining method, he commences a thorough study of the structure of the ... More


The Arrangement of Land M Cones in Human and a Primate Retina

J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The relative numerosities and spatial arrangement of long-wave (L) and middle-wave (M) cones in the human and primate retina have long been debated. This topographical organization of cones is ... More


The Neural Circuit Providing Input to Midget Ganglion Cells

David W Marshak

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter proposes a neural circuit providing input to a central midget ganglion cell. The narrow field of amacrine cells are unselective in their contacts with bipolar cells, but because their ... More


The Influence of Rods on Colour Naming During Dark Adaptation

Janice L. Nerger, Vicki J. Volbrecht, and Kristin A. Haase

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Various studies have demonstrated that the effects of rods on hue judgments depend on the size and intensity of the test stimulus. Studies have also shown increased rod influence with smaller stimuli ... More


The Retina as Embodying Predictions about the Visual World

Michael J. Berry II and Gregory Schwartz

in Predictions in the Brain: Using Our Past to Generate a Future

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195395518
eISBN:
9780199897230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395518.003.0107
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the retina's predictive capabilities and analyses the underlying circuit mechanisms. This provides the essential building blocks for understanding the more sophisticated ... More


The Electric Signals Originating in the Eye

Jaakko Malmivuo

in Bioelectromagnetism: Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195058239
eISBN:
9780199847839
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195058239.003.0028
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter contains some details concerning the electro-oculogram (EOG) as it relates to eye movement, including nystagmus. The collective behavior of the entire retina is a bioelectric generator, ... More


Electroretinography

Scott E. Brodie and Jay A. Liveson

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Anatomically, the retina consists of primary photoreceptors occupying the outer layers, which relay visual information to second-order neurons (bipolar neurons) in the middle retinal layers. These ... More


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