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 Research Issues

Mary Briody Mahowald

in Bioethics and Women: Across the Lifespan

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195176179
eISBN:
9780199786558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195176170.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

Cases illustrating the exclusion of women in biomedical research, experimental treatment and maternal fetal surgery, human reproductive cloning, and embryonic stem cell research are presented. For ... More


Getting Down to Cases

Ruth W. Grant

in Strings Attached: Untangling the Ethics of Incentives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151601
eISBN:
9781400839742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151601.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

This chapter explores in more detail four very different domains where incentives have been controversial: plea bargaining, recruiting medical research subjects, the loan policies of the ... More


Protecting Vulnerable Human Subjects in Research

Adil E. Shamoo and David B. Resnik

in Responsible Conduct of Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195368246
eISBN:
9780199867615
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368246.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses ethical issues and policies relating to the protection of vulnerable subjects in research. It reviews the history of human experimentation with vulnerable human subjects such ... More


Protecting Human Subjects in Research

David B. Resnik

in Playing Politics with Science: Balancing Scientific Independence and Government Oversight

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195375893
eISBN:
9780199866632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195375893.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses some problems with the current U.S. system for protecting human research subjects. These problems indicate that in some ways the regulations provide too much oversight, in ... More


The Conditions and Consequences of Evaluation Apprehension

Milton J. Rosenberg

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

On the assumption that many research subjects are apprehensive about how they will be evaluated, this chapter describes the circumstances in which this source of artifacts seems most and least apt to ... More


Introduction

Alan Wertheimer

in Rethinking the Ethics of Clinical Research: Widening the Lens

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199743513
eISBN:
9780199827145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199743513.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter introduces the problems examined in the book and provides a roadmap for the chapters that follow. The basic ethical problem is that research uses people to benefit others. How can that ... More


Ethical issues

Emily White, Bruce K. Armstrong, and Rodolfo Saracci

in Principles of Exposure Measurement in Epidemiology: Collecting, Evaluating, and Improving Measures of Disease Risk Factors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509851
eISBN:
9780191723827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509851.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The overriding ethical principle in human research is that the rights of individual subjects should take precedence over the expected benefits to human knowledge or the community. This principle does ... More


Sincerity and Institutional Values

Seana Valentine Shiffrin

in Speech Matters: On Lying, Morality, and the Law

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157023
eISBN:
9781400852529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157023.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines freedom of speech and sincerity in relation to institutions and institutional roles, using the university as a prime example. It first challenges the idea that mere declarations ... More


The Censor's Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research

Carl E. Schneider

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028912
eISBN:
9780262328784
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028912.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Medical and social progress depend on research with human subjects. When that research is done in institutions getting federal money, it is regulated by federally required and supervised ... More


Historical Foundations

Steven S. Coughlin

in Ethics and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195322934
eISBN:
9780199864416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322934.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the history of the rise of ethical concerns in the public health movement and epidemiology, which is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human ... More


Strings Attached: Untangling the Ethics of Incentives

Ruth W. Grant

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151601
eISBN:
9781400839742
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151601.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

Incentives can be found everywhere—in schools, businesses, factories, and government—influencing people's choices about almost everything, from financial decisions and tobacco use to exercise and ... More


Research Risk and Regulationist Stereotypes

Carl E. Schneider

in The Censor's Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028912
eISBN:
9780262328784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028912.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

How much good IRB regulation can do depends on how much risk research subjects run. Biomedical research can harm subjects, but much of it needs no physical contact with patients, and most contact ... More


The Misshapen Ideology of the IRB System

Carl E. Schneider

in The Censor's Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028912
eISBN:
9780262328784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028912.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Good regulation comes from good guidance. IRBs need a coherent and legible ethics but get three principles – respect for persons, justice, and beneficence. A workable ethics is unachievable because ... More


Research on Human Subjects, Exploitation, and Global Principles of Ethics

John Harris

in Law and Medicine: Current Legal Issues Volume 3

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198299189
eISBN:
9780191685644
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299189.003.0023
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Medical Law

In 1997, 5.8 million people became infected with HIV, 30.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, and infection is running at about 16,000 new infections a day, of which more than 90% are in ... More


Arbitrary and Capricious Decisions

Carl E. Schneider

in The Censor's Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028912
eISBN:
9780262328784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028912.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Much evidence suggests that IRBs make decisions badly. For example, when multiple IRBs review the same research protocols, they treat them inconsistently. The IRB system makes error inevitable. ... More


Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

I. Glenn Cohen and Holly Fernandez Lynch (eds)

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

The current framework for the regulation of human subjects research emerged largely in reaction to the horrors of Nazi human experimentation, revealed at the Nuremburg trials, and the Tuskegee ... More


IRB Licensing

Philip Hamburger

in Who's Afraid of Academic Freedom?

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231168809
eISBN:
9780231538794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231168809.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines conflicting norms in the government's licensing of speech and the press on “human-subjects research” through institutional review boards (IRBs). It begins by discussing ... More


Arabic, Self and Autoethnography

Yasir Suleiman

in Arabic, Self and Identity: A Study in Conflict and Displacement

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199747016
eISBN:
9780199896905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199747016.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

The chapter deals with the language-Self link in the study of Arabic in the social world. For this purpose, the chapter investigates two sites in the authors’ linguistic behaviour as a teacher ... More


Subjects, Participants, and Partners: What Are the Implications for Research as the Role of Informed Consent Evolves?

Alexander Morgan Capron

in Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Informed consent is usually thought of as the ethical cornerstone of research with human beings yet over the past thirty years a largegap has opened between informed consent as an object of ... More


Classifying Military Personnel as a Vulnerable Population

Efthimios Parasidis

in Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

The U.S. military has a long and checkered history of research involving human subjects. Although federal guidelines and military directives provide service members with procedural safeguards, the ... More


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