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The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Jens Borchert and Jürgen Zeiss (eds)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Professional politicians have increasingly come under public attack in most democratic countries, yet they have received surprisingly little systematic attention in political science. This is the ... More


Germany: From “Guilds of Notables” to Political Class

Jens Borchert and Lutz Zeiss

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The professionalization of politics in Germany was hindered by the explicit rejection of legislative salaries in the German constitution until 1906. Thus, it was the Social Democratic Party and ... More


New Zealand: Parliamentary Careers and Electoral Reform

Elizabeth McLeay

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

At the end of the nineteenth century, New Zealand's MPs began to see their mandate as an occupation and therefore granted themselves full salaries. Yet, staffing remained poor until the 1970s, when ... More


United States: A Political Class of Entrepreneurs

Jens Borchert and Gary Copeland

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

American politicians have about the greatest choice in terms of the electoral offices they want to pursue. However, only a minority of these numerous offices is professionalized. Moreover, while ... More


Forms of Institutional Investor Engagement

Roderick Martin, Peter D. Casson, and Tahir M. Nisar

in Investor Engagement: Investors and Management Practice under Shareholder Value

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199202607
eISBN:
9780191707896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199202607.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Finance, Accounting, and Banking

Institutional investors adopt different methods of engagement. Much investor engagement is routine and informal; other engagement is extraordinary and arises from specific circumstances, such as ... More


The Impact of Financial Liberalization and the Rise of Financial Rents on Income Inequality: The Case of Turkey

A. Erinc Yeldan

in Inequality Growth and Poverty in an Era of Liberalization and Globalization

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199271412
eISBN:
9780191601255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271410.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This is the third of five country case studies on income inequality, and investigates the impact of financial liberalization and the rise of financial rents on income inequality in Turkey. The ... More


Pilfering, Customs Fees, and Remuneration

WILLIAM J. ASHWORTH

in Customs and Excise: Trade, Production, and Consumption in England 1640-1845

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199259212
eISBN:
9780191717918
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259212.003.0010
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Economic History

This chapter begins with a discussion of pilfering and perquisites, which were part of an alternative economy that was vast and absorbed much of the working poor. This common economy created ... More


The Different Measures of Recovery and their Terminology

Jeroen Kortmann

in Altruism in Private Law: Liability for Nonfeasance and Negotiorum Gestio

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199280056
eISBN:
9780191700101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280056.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Law of Obligations

This chapter gives an account of the different measures of recovery and elaborates the meaning of the different terms used for those measures. For while ‘reimbursement’, ‘compensation’, ... More


The French Banking Industry

Jordi Canals

in Competitive Strategies in European Banking

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198773504
eISBN:
9780191695322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198773504.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy, Finance, Accounting, and Banking

This chapter provides a structural overview of the French banking system. It presents an overview of savings and investment in the French economy, which is broken down into various sectors and ... More


The marketization of the employment relationship?

Patrick McGovern, Stephen Hill, Colin Mills, and Michael White

in Market, Class, and Employment

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199213375
eISBN:
9780191695865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213375.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

A brief review of the literature from the UK is given to show how the idea of an increasingly market-driven employment relationship has been taken up. Evidence relating to four areas of the ... More


Accounting for Employee Benefits

Neil Gilbert

in Counting the Poor: New Thinking About European Poverty Measures and Lessons for the United States

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199860586
eISBN:
9780199932948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199860586.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy, Children and Families

This chapter explores the different types of noncash benefits that can accompany employment, their share in total compensation, and the likely impact of including them in the measurement of resources ... More


Agency Costs and the Nexus of Contracts

M. W. Lau

in The Economic Structure of Trusts: Towards a Property-based Approach

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199602407
eISBN:
9780191725203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602407.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Trusts

This chapter examines Robert Sitkoff's agency costs theory of trust law, which is derived from Michael Jensen and William Meckling's theory of the firm. Sitkoff's account of trusts consists of two ... More


Performance and Breach

MARK R. FREEDLAND FBA

in The Personal Employment Contract

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199298631
eISBN:
9780191719400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298631.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter focuses on the argument that distinctions between entire and divisible contracts, and between performance of work and readiness and willingness to work, provide a rather unsatisfactory ... More


English Lawyers between Market and State: The Politics of Professionalism

Richard L Abel

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198260349
eISBN:
9780191682094
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198260349.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Legal Profession and Ethics

In the final decade of the twentieth century the legal profession witnessed profound changes. First the Conservatives sought to apply laissez-faire principles to the profession. Then Labour ... More


Towards a New General Principle

Jeroen Kortmann

in Altruism in Private Law: Liability for Nonfeasance and Negotiorum Gestio

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199280056
eISBN:
9780191700101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280056.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Law of Obligations

It is seen that none of the existing doctrines possess the right tools for the development of a general principle that allow the intervener to recover. This chapter discusses the alternative to this, ... More


Enron and Corporate Law Reform in the UK and the European Community

Paul L. Davies

in Corporate Governance in Context: Corporations, States, and Markets in Europe, Japan, and the US

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199290703
eISBN:
9780191700576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199290703.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

The collapse of Enron and of a number of other companies in the United States over the period between late 2001 and the middle of 2002 has had a striking impact on the process of corporate law ... More


Summary and Conclusions

Andrew Smithers

in Productivity and the Bonus Culture

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198836117
eISBN:
9780191873461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198836117.003.0025
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Poor productivity poses the major threat to the UK and US economies. It should be but isn’t our main economic preoccupation. Growth does not depend solely on the rate at which technology improves. It ... More


Work, Welfare, and Responsibility

Richard L. Lippke

in Rethinking Imprisonment

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199209125
eISBN:
9780191695766
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209125.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter develops the case for ensuring prisoners' access to paid labour with remuneration close to what free labourers earn. It begins with a restatement of the basic conditions of welfare that ... More


Pastors and Their Households

Scott M. Manetsch

in Calvin's Company of Pastors: Pastoral Care and the Emerging Reformed Church, 1536-1609

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199938575
eISBN:
9780199980741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199938575.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

Chapter 4 focuses on the households of Geneva’s pastors, looking for clues as to the nature of the ministers’ marriages and family relationships, and describing the material and financial ... More


Primary care: paying general practitioners

Jan Abel Olsen

in Principles in Health Economics and Policy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198794837
eISBN:
9780191836329
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198794837.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the three most widely used remuneration systems for general practitioners (GPs): fee-for-service, capitation, and salary. Each system has its pros and cons, so in practice some ... More


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