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SATURATION OF ABSORPTION

S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl

in Intense Terahertz Excitation of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528302
eISBN:
9780191713637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528302.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses terahertz radiation-induced saturation of absorption, including incoherent and coherent saturation effects. Saturation due to slow relaxation and Rabi oscillations in various ... More


NMR spectroscopy

Bernhard Blümich

in NMR Imaging of Materials

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526766
eISBN:
9780191709524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526766.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The appearance of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra is determined by various interactions of the nuclear spins with each other, as well as with quantities such as the local and applied ... More


Fundamentals of Linear Thermoelasticity with Finite Wave Speeds

Józef Ignaczak and Martin Ostoja‐Starzewski

in Thermoelasticity with Finite Wave Speeds

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199541645
eISBN:
9780191716164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541645.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Physics

First, the basic equations of classical thermoelasticity (based on Fourier heat conduction) are reviewed. Then, starting from continuum thermomechanics, the corresponding equations of the ... More


1 Introduction

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the properties arising due to the defining feature of polymers—the enormous size of their constituent molecules. This size and the large aspect ratio of ‘macromolecules’ cause ... More


Dielectric Relaxation of Water

Udo Kaatze

in Dielectric Relaxation in Biological Systems: Physical Principles, Methods, and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199686513
eISBN:
9780191766398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686513.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Dielectric relaxation of water as well as ionic and non-ionic aqueous solutions is briefly described as a basic principle of the more complex relaxation characteristics in biological systems. ... More


Relaxation and Kinetics in Shock Tubes and Shock Tunnels

Raymond Brun

in Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The first part of this chapter presents experimental data on vibrational relaxation times and vibrational populations obtained in shock tubes and shock tunnels. The corresponding methods of ... More


Transport equations for the one-body density

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter begins by calculating the Wigner transform for the von Neumann equation for the one-body density operator. It shows how the Liouville equation follows in leading order in an expansion to ... More


Metals and quantum wires

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter discusses conductivity in metals and semiconductor heterostructures. It aims to exhibit the similarities to nuclear transport problems. Semi-classical transport equations are used and ... More


The Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau Theory

Nikolai B. Kopnin

in Theory of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507888
eISBN:
9780191709722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507888.003.11
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter specifies the conditions when the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) model can be justified microscopically. The TDGL model is shown to be exact for gapless superconductors. It is not ... More


Transport and Relaxation in Quasi-Equilibrium Regimes: Gas Mixtures

Raymond Brun

in Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter extends the Chapman-Enskog method to binary gas mixtures in equilibrium at the zero order of the distribution function. It examines monatomic gas mixtures then diatomic gases possessing ... More


Reactive Flows

Raymond Brun

in Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes the chemical reactions occurring in high temperature gas flows from a macroscopic point of view. In equilibrium conditions, the law of mass action is established and examples ... More


Relaxor ferroelectrics

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Relaxors are site‐ and charge‐disordered crystals or solid solutions where charge disorder induces random fields. They are characterized by the appearance of polar nanoclusters that are much smaller ... More


Quantum electronic transport in solids

Rodrigo Soto

in Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780198716051
eISBN:
9780191824401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716051.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes how the combination of the energy bands and the exclusion principle for electrons explains the main electronic features of solids. The kinetic theory for fermions is adapted to ... More


Relaxation-Time Approximation

Klaus Morawetz

in Interacting Systems far from Equilibrium: Quantum Kinetic Theory

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198797241
eISBN:
9780191838743
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797241.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

A conserving relaxation time approximation is presented resulting into a Mermin-type of polarisation functions. The transport properties are calculated for the relaxation time approximation and an ... More


Lattice Relaxation Schemes

Sauro Succi

in The Lattice Boltzmann Equation: For Complex States of Flowing Matter

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780199592357
eISBN:
9780191847967
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199592357.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In Chapter 13, it was shown that the complexity of the LBE collision operator can be cut down dramatically by formulating discrete versions with prescribed local equilibria. In this chapter, the ... More


Scattering in a degenerate gas

B. K. Ridley FRS

in Quantum Processes in Semiconductors

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199677214
eISBN:
9780191760624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677214.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In certain cases, the occupation probability of the final state in a scattering process is negligible. However, scattering rates may also depend on the probability of occupancy of the final state. If ... More


Heat flow and thermal relaxation

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The solution of heat flow problems involving the thermal diffusion equation is explained. Conduction through a flat wall and into a sphere is described. A worked example using Fourier analysis is ... More


Langevin's theory of diffusion

Daniel T. Gillespie and Effrosyni Seitaridou

in Simple Brownian Diffusion: An Introduction to the Standard Theoretical Models

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199664504
eISBN:
9780191748516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199664504.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Although Einstein's theory of diffusion is adequate for many purposes, the previous chapters have shown that it is physically incorrect on small timescales. A theory of diffusion that has a firmer ... More


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