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Assessing Distinctiveness: Measures of Item-Specific and Relational Processing

Daniel J. Burns

in Distinctiveness and Memory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169669
eISBN:
9780199847563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Researchers are not in complete agreement on the matter of defining distinctiveness. Traditional definitions of distinctiveness point to the processing of non-overlapping attributes or features. ... More


Adult Age Differences in Episodic Memory: Item-Specific, Relational, and Distinctive Processing

Rebekah E. Smith

in Distinctiveness and Memory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169669
eISBN:
9780199847563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Younger adults often perform better than older adults do on memory tests. Researchers interested in these age-associated performance differences have at times drawn concepts from the “mainstream” ... More


Relational processing is fundamental to the central executive and is limited to four variables

Graeme S. Halford, Steven Phillips, William H. Wilson, Julie McCredden, Andrews Glenda, Damian Birney, Rosemary Baker, and John D. Bain

in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198570394
eISBN:
9780191693816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570394.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes a consistent view of executive control. It offers evidence that a major function of an executive is to support relational processing involved in planning, reasoning and ... More


Living, Dying, and Remembering: The Encoding Processes Involved in Survival Processing

Daniel J. Burns and Joshua Hart

in What Is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199928057
eISBN:
9780199369744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199928057.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

The authors argue that the proximate mechanism responsible for the survival processing retention advantage may be differential processing of item-specific and relational processing. Whereas most ... More


Conceptual Implicit Memory and the Item-Specific–Relational Distinction

Neil W. Mulligan

in Distinctiveness and Memory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169669
eISBN:
9780199847563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Research on distinctiveness and memory has largely focused on explicit, or recollective, aspects of memory. However, memory also affects behavior in ways unaccompanied by conscious recollection. This ... More


Distinctiveness and Memory: A Comparison of the Social and Cognitive Literatures

Susan Coats and Eliot R. Smith

in Distinctiveness and Memory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169669
eISBN:
9780199847563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter is concerned with the effects of distinctiveness on explicit memory in social psychology. It draws comparisons between the social and cognitive literatures on the topic of ... More


Listening strategies in infancy: the roots of music and language development

Sandra E. Trehuband and Laurel J. Trainor

in Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198522577
eISBN:
9780191688645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522577.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology

This chapter examines infants' processing of complex auditory patterns. It shows that perceptual grouping processes are operative in infancy, and that relational pitch and temporal processing are as ... More


Resolution of Discrepant Memory Strengths: An Explanation of the Effects of Bizarreness on Memory

James B. Worthen

in Distinctiveness and Memory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169669
eISBN:
9780199847563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Research investigating the relationship between bizarreness and memory began as an attempt to determine the effectiveness of bizarre mental imagery as a mnemonic device. Although some researchers ... More


Studying Talk-at-Work: An Analysis of the Discursive Processes of Management Coaching Conversations

Florian Schulz and Chris Steyaert

in Language and Communication at Work: Discourse, Narrativity, and Organizing

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198703082
eISBN:
9780191772443
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703082.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

This chapter analyzes the discursive unfolding of interactions between a professional coach and a middle manager during a management coaching conversation, a specific form of talk-at-work. The ... More


Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community

Kenneth J. Gergen

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199846269
eISBN:
9780190256302
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199846269.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book builds on two current developments in psychology scholarship and practice. The first centers on broad discontent with the individualist tradition in which the rational agent, or autonomous ... More


Organizing: The Precarious Balance

Kenneth J. Gergen

in Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199846269
eISBN:
9780190256302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199846269.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter presents an account of organizational life as relational process, replacing the traditional notion of organizations as collections of single individuals, each of whom is hired, advanced, ... More


Approaching the Sacred

Kenneth J. Gergen

in Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199846269
eISBN:
9780190256302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199846269.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores issues of spirituality, with emphasis on whether a bridge can be formed between the secular account of relational being developed and traditions of spirituality. It argues that ... More


Cognitive and Social Factors in the Study of Survival Memory

Michael P. Toglia, Aaron D. Leedy, Adam M. Wilde, Catherine M. Baker, and Eileen M. Dacey

in What Is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199928057
eISBN:
9780199369744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199928057.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Because semantic and/or elaborative encoding is often theorized to drive the illusory memory effect (DRM), if survival processing is a super-level semantic task as suggested by the survival ... More


Therapy as Relational Recovery

Kenneth J. Gergen

in Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199846269
eISBN:
9780190256302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199846269.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines therapeutic practices and how they contribute (or not) to relational well-being, with particular emphasis on the client-therapist relationship. It replaces the traditional focus ... More


Survival Processing Does Not Improve Paired-Associate Learning

Bennett L. Schwartz and Brock R. Brothers

in What Is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199928057
eISBN:
9780199369744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199928057.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Evaluating words for survival relevance leads to better free recall than many common encoding strategies (Nairne & Pandeirada, 2011). We addressed if survival processing advantages would generalize ... More


Cultural Differences in Procedural Knowledge and Their Impact on Consumer Behavior

Robert S. Wyer

in Handbook of Culture and Consumer Behavior

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199388516
eISBN:
9780190228347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199388516.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Knowledge of cultural differences in consumer judgment and making decision is increasingly important for understanding communication and advertising effectiveness in the expanding global marketplace. ... More


Education in a Relational Key

Kenneth J. Gergen

in Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199846269
eISBN:
9780190256302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199846269.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines emerging pedagogical practices and their potentials. It argues that educators should shift their attention from the individual student to the nexus of relationships in which ... More


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