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Speciation

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Diversification occurs readily in asexual populations, but is obstructed by recombination in outcrossed sexual organisms. Species may arise because sexual isolation permits diversification, or ... More


Neurocomputational Analysis of Dopamine Function

Daniel Durstewitz

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

Current computational models of dopamine (DA) modulation have worked either from a more abstract neuroalgorithmic level, starting with specific assumptions about DA's computational role and then ... More


Dopaminergic Mechanisms in Drug-Seeking Habits and the Vulnerability to Drug Addiction

Barry J. Everitt, David Belin, Jeffrey W. Dalley, and Trevor W. Robbins

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0027
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter begins with a discussion of the notion that dopamine (DA) transmission provides a neurochemical mechanism of reinforcement in the brain. It then covers the molecular mechanisms of action ... More


Imaging Dopamine’s Role in Drug Abuse and Addiction

Nora D. Volkow, Joanna S. Fowler, Gene-Jack Wang, Frank Telang, and Ruben Baler

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0028
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter begins with a discussion of the relationship between acute dopamine (DA) increases in the human brain and drug reinforcement. It then covers the long-term effects of drugs of abuse on DA ... More


The Adaptive Control of Thought

John R. Anderson

in How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195324259
eISBN:
9780199786671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324259.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

The entire cerebral cortex projects down to the basal ganglia that plays an important role in coordinating cognition. These structures serve as the repository for our procedural knowledge. They have ... More


Rules and Restrictions

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Language is both cognitive and sociocultural, consisting in conventionally sanctioned patterns of communicative activity. These patterns take the form of schemas abstracted from usage events by the ... More


Learning

Brian Skyrms

in Signals: Evolution, Learning, and Information

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199580828
eISBN:
9780191722769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580828.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that investigation of reinforcement learning is a complement to the study of belief learning, rather than being a ‘dangerous antagonist’. It begins at the low end of the scale, to ... More


The Form of the Hexameter: The Origins of Caesura and Diaeresis

A. P. David

in The Dance of the Muses: Choral Theory and Ancient Greek Poetics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199292400
eISBN:
9780191711855
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199292400.003.0004
Subject:
Classical Studies, Poetry and Poets: Classical, Early, and Medieval

This chapter draws on two strands of evidence that bear on the form of the dactylic hexameter: one from Plato (Epinomis) and Aristotle (Metaphysics), one from a modern Greek folk dance (the συρτός). ... More


Improving Health Through the Development and Management of Habits

Leslie R. Martin, Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek, and M. Robin DiMatteo

in Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195380408
eISBN:
9780199864454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380408.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The ways in which healthy habits are formed and maintained over time, as well as the ways in which health-harmful habits can be extinguished, are the topics of this chapter. The principles of ... More


International Monitors as Reinforcement

Judith G. Kelley

in Monitoring Democracy: When International Election Observation Works, and Why It Often Fails

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152776
eISBN:
9781400842520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152776.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter studies how international monitors may improve elections and when their efforts may be more likely to succeed or fail. It argues that monitors can indeed improve elections, but their ... More


Between A “Soft” And A “Hard” Place: Gender, Ethnicity, and Culture in the School and at Home

Prudence L. Carter

in Keepin' It Real: School Success Beyond Black and White

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195168624
eISBN:
9780199943968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168624.003.0018
Subject:
Sociology, Education

This chapter examines differences in educational approaches between female and male African American and Latino students. It discusses the feminization of “acting white” and other cultural styles ... More


Decision-making

Edmund T. Rolls

in Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making: A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232703
eISBN:
9780191724046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232703.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter looks at selection of mainly autonomic responses and their classical conditioning. Selection of approach or withdrawal, and their classical conditioning are also mentioned. It then goes ... More


Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and Intervention

JACQUELINE CORCORAN and JOSEPH WALSH

in Building Strengths and Skills: A Collaborative Approach to Working with Clients

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195154306
eISBN:
9780199864287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154306.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

This chapter provides a brief overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy, a broad class of present-focused interventions with a shared focus on changing cognition (thoughts, beliefs, and assumptions ... More


A brief history of the anhedonia hypothesis

Roy A. Wise

in Appetite: Neural and Behavioural Bases

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547877
eISBN:
9780191724275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547877.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the history of the so-called anhedonia hypothesis. The term anhedonia was first used in 1978 in connection with the assertion that pimozide blocks the reward quality of food. ... More


A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Andreas Heinz

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

For many psychiatric disorders, neurobiological findings do not help to diagnose a specific disease or to predict its outcome. This book suggests to take a new look at mental disorders by using ... More


Campaigns and the Stability of Political Opinion

James A. Gardner

in What are Campaigns For?: The Role of Persuasion in Electoral Law and Politics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195392616
eISBN:
9780199855438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195392616.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Could changes to the laws that regulate campaigns improve them? This chapter addresses this question by reviewing the social science literature on how people arrive at political opinions. This ... More


The Basics of Dopamine: How We Learn and Store Value

Paul W. Glimcher

in Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744251
eISBN:
9780199863433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter reviews the anatomy of the neural circuits associated with dopamine and valuation; presents theories of reinforcement learning from psychology and computer science that predate ... More


Model-Based Reinforcement Learning as Cognitive Search: Neurocomputational Theories

Nathaniel D. Daw

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

One oft-envisioned function of search is planning actions (e.g., by exploring routes through a cognitive map). Yet, among the most prominent and quantitatively successful neuroscentific theories of ... More


Reinforcement and Regret

H. Peyton Young

in Strategic Learning and its Limits

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199269181
eISBN:
9780191699375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269181.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Reinforcement is an empirical principle which states that the higher the payoff from taking an action in the past, the more likely it will be taken in the future. This approach has long occupied a ... More


Changing Gender Preferences in Taiwan

C. Y. Cyrus Chu and Ruoh‐Rong Yu

in Understanding Chinese Families: A Comparative Study of Taiwan and Southeast China

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199578092
eISBN:
9780191722424
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578092.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter analyzes the intergenerational transmission of gender preferences in education investment at the macro and the micro level using the Taiwan PSFD data. The macro‐level analysis shows ... More


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