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Para-reflections: Shadowgrams and the Black Drop

Roy Sorensen

in Seeing Dark Things: The Philosophy of Shadows

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195326574
eISBN:
9780199870271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326574.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Can a flame cast a shadow? The blocker theory of shadows answers no because flames emit light. However, a candle on a white surface does appear to cast a flame. Denying that the dark patch created by ... More


Scattering with Interference

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter studies wave interference. Light does not bend in a lens, it does not bounce off the surface of glass, and it does not spread out after passing through a small hole. All of these are ... More


NEUTRON-REFRACTION AND SMALL-ANGLE SCATTERING TOMOGRAPHY

Wolfgang Treimer

in Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199213245
eISBN:
9780191707582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Refraction and small-angle scattering can provide unique imaging signals in situations where absorption- or other attenuation-based effects are insufficient. Attenuation contrast is low in cases ... More


The Fortunes of a Mechanical Model for Natural Philosophy

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

The basic assumption of ‘rational mechanics’ was that all natural philosophy was mechanics, and that, as mechanics was pursued with greater and greater detail and sophistication, the rest of natural ... More


ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA IN MOLECULES AND IN SPACE

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses electrical phenomena in space and molecules. Topics covered include molecular dipoles, absorption and emission by molecules, Raman effect, electronic transitions in molecules, ... More


Public and Private: Newton’s Chrysopoeia and the Republic of Chymistry

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0020
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter shows that Newton developed a theory of refraction based on the chymical principle sulfur, which he described in the first edition Opticks (1704). It also finds that the seeds of this ... More


The Search for Method 1619–1625

Stephen Gaukroger

in Descartes: An Intellectual Biography

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237242
eISBN:
9780191597480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237243.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Reveals the beginnings of several important projects during Descartes's time in the army of Maximilian I, stationed at Ulm. These include the composition of the first part of the Regulae ad ... More


The Paris Years 1625–1628

Stephen Gaukroger

in Descartes: An Intellectual Biography

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237242
eISBN:
9780191597480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237243.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Describes Descartes's time in Paris and the intellectual milieu in which he moved. Reconstructions by Schuster and Shea of his discovery, whilst collaborating with Mydorge on optics, of the law of ... More


Properties of the electromagnetic field— propagation and scattering

ANDRÉ AUTHIER

in Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198528920
eISBN:
9780191713125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528920.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter gives a theoretical description of the basic properties of electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations are first reviewed; the expressions of electrodynamic potentials in the vacuum ... More


Properties of wavefields

ANDRÉ AUTHIER

in Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198528920
eISBN:
9780191713125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528920.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter is the first of the next few chapters devoted to plane-wave advanced dynamical theory. The fundamental equations of dynamical diffraction are derived for vector waves and the expression ... More


Ray tracing in perfect crystals

ANDRÉ AUTHIER

in Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198528920
eISBN:
9780191713125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528920.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter describes the propagation of wavefields inside the crystal close to the Bragg angle. It shows that the direction of propagation of packets of wavefields as obtained by their group ... More


Interband and impurity absorption

P. K. Basu

in Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors: Bulk and Microstructures

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526209
eISBN:
9780191706790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526209.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter develops the theory of band-to-band and band impurity transitions involving photon absorption. Topics discussed include basic theory of absorption and gain, direct interband absorption, ... More


Aristotle Redivivus

Michael Ruse

in On Purpose

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691195957
eISBN:
9781400888603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691195957.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explains occurrences during and after the Scientific Revolution, in which the personification of nature that is at the heart of the Aristotelian philosophy had a nasty way of reappearing ... More


Atmospheric refraction

Helen E. Ross and Cornelis Plug

in The Mystery of The Moon Illusion: Exploring Size Perception

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198508625
eISBN:
9780191584893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508625.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The horizon enlargement of the celestial bodies cannot be explained by variations in their real distance, a fact recognised by astronomers since at least the time of Hipparchus in the second century ... More


Infant Vision

François Vital-Durand, Janette Atkinson, and Oliver J. Braddick (eds)

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523161
eISBN:
9780191724558
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523161.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book provides an overview by international authorities, spanning the disciplines of neuroscience, psychology, ophthalmology, optometry, and paediatrics, of normal and pathological infant visual ... More


Ptolemy and the Flowering of Greek Optics

A. Mark Smith

in From Sight to Light: The Passage from Ancient to Modern Optics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226174761
eISBN:
9780226174938
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174938.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The main purpose of this chapter is to show how Ptolemy combined all three approaches discussed in the previous chapter in order to create a theory of sight that accounts broadly not only for visual ... More


Basic considerations when refracting infants

Frank Thorn

in Infant Vision

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523161
eISBN:
9780191724558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523161.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Conceptually, the basic optical methods used to perform an ‘objective’ refraction are simple. However, these elementary optical procedures are not always simple to implement and are invariably ... More


Middle Ages

Don S. Lemons

in Drawing Physics: 2,600 Years of Discovery From Thales to Higgs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035903
eISBN:
9780262338745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035903.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

In the middle ages (550-1510 CE) scientific knowledge was consolidated and translated, first from Greek and Latin into Arabic and Syriac and then from Arabic and Greek into Latin. Alhazen (1020 CE) ... More


Early Modern Period

Don S. Lemons

in Drawing Physics: 2,600 Years of Discovery From Thales to Higgs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035903
eISBN:
9780262338745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035903.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The early modern period (1543-1785) contributed many physical concepts that are simple enough to be conveyed with a diagram. Copernicus’s heliocentric universe (1543), Galileo’s discovery of the ... More


Stokes’s Optics 1: Waves in Luminiferous Media

Olivier Darrigol

in George Gabriel Stokes: Life, Science and Faith

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198822868
eISBN:
9780191861321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822868.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The purpose of this chapter and the following one is to explore and explain the rich diversity of Stokes’s contributions to physical optics in Cambridge and world contexts. He triggered debates and ... More


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