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A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume I

Ernest Sosa

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297023
eISBN:
9780191711411
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297023.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book presents the six Locke Lectures given in Oxford in May and June of 2005. They appear now very nearly as delivered; they argue for two levels of knowledge — the animal and the reflective — ... More


Appendix

Ernest Sosa

in A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume I

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297023
eISBN:
9780191711411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297023.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It has been argued powerfully by Alvin Plantinga that naturalism suffers a kind of epistemic self-refutation, for it cannot provide appropriately for the very possibility of its being accepted ... More


A Virtue Epistemology

Ernest Sosa

in A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume I

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297023
eISBN:
9780191711411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297023.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents a theory of knowledge as coming in two main varieties: the animal and the reflective. Animal knowledge is apt belief, which hits the mark of truth through the exercise of ... More


Knowledge

Hilary Kornblith

in On Reflection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199563005
eISBN:
9780191745263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563005.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

It is tempting to hold that a belief which is held unreflectively is not justified, and therefore, cannot constitute knowledge. Justification seems to be something which we achieve, rather than ... More


Human Knowledge, Animal and Reflective

Ernest Sosa

in Reflective Knowledge: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume II

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199217250
eISBN:
9780191696053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217250.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses the two varieties of human knowledge: the animal and the reflective. Animal knowledge does not require that the knower have an epistemic perspective on his belief, a ... More


The Social Transmission of Knowledge

Alan Millar

in The Nature and Value of Knowledge: Three Investigations

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199586264
eISBN:
9780191723360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586264.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

This chapter argues that the goal of enquiry is reflective knowledge. Reflective knowledge is knowledge along with knowledge of how we know, or at least knowledge that we know. Recently discussed ... More


Tracking over the Rivals

Sherrilyn Roush

in Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199274734
eISBN:
9780191603228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199274738.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that the new tracking view is superior to externalist rivals: process reliabilism, the safety view, and the relevant alternatives view. This is because of the generality problem, ... More


Descartes and Virtue Epistemology 1

Ernest Sosa

in Reason, Metaphysics, and Mind: New Essays on the Philosophy of Alvin Plantinga

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199766864
eISBN:
9780199932184
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766864.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter aims to provide an account of Descartes's project in the Meditations that will fit various passages in the text that are incompatible with earlier interpretations. It emerges that ... More


Reflective Knowledge in the Best Circles

Ernest Sosa

in Knowledge, Truth, and Duty: Essays on Epistemic Justification, Responsibility, and Virtue

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195128925
eISBN:
9780199833764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195128923.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In response to the well‐known circularity problems posed by Descartes and Moore, recommends externalist virtue epistemology, according to which a true belief amounts to knowledge if its truth is not ... More


Abstractness of implicit knowledge: A cognitive evolutionary perspective

Robert C. Mathews and Lewis G. Roussel

in How Implicit Is Implicit Learning?

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523512
eISBN:
9780191688928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523512.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that people need to separate the issue of implicit learning from the issue of conscious access to implicitly acquired knowledge, noting that Merlin Donald's cognitive evolutionary ... More


Reflective Knowledge: Knowledge Extended

Chienkuo Mi and Shane Ryan

in Extended Epistemology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198769811
eISBN:
9780191822643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198769811.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

In this paper, we defend the claim that reflective knowledge is necessary for extended knowledge. We begin by examining a recent account of extended knowledge provided by Palermos and Pritchard ... More


Epistemology and Philosophical Method

Alan Millar

in Knowing by Perceiving

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198755692
eISBN:
9780191816840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198755692.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Mainstream epistemology has aimed to provide reductive analyses of knowledge in terms of conditions on belief. Kinds of knowledge, for instance, perceptual knowledge and knowledge from testimony, are ... More


Further Developments: Minds and Brains, God and Souls

Henry M. Wellman

in Making Minds: How Theory of Mind Develops

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199334919
eISBN:
9780190207472
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199334919.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

For adults, extraordinary agents, like God, are distinctively different from ordinary agents, and the brain is distinctively different from the mind. Preschool theory of mind—explored and explained ... More


Truth Tracking and the Problem of Reflective Knowledge

Joe Salerno

in Knowledge and Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014083
eISBN:
9780262265782
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014083.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter focuses on a criticism of reflective knowledge, which is taken by Vogel as a decisive objection to tracking theories. This criticism finds its roots in Vogel’s earlier work and recurs in ... More


Knowledge, Default, and Skepticism

Ernest Sosa

in Epistemic Entitlement

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198713524
eISBN:
9780191781940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198713524.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, American Philosophy

Virtue epistemology takes its own approach to the questions of traditional epistemology. In what follows, a fresh treatment of philosophical skepticism is enabled by a distinctive notion of default ... More


Epistemic Agency

Hilary Kornblith

in Performance Epistemology: Foundations and Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198746942
eISBN:
9780191809156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746942.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Over the years, the notion of epistemic agency has played a larger and larger role in Ernest Sosa’s epistemology. In his most recent work, epistemic agency plays an absolutely central role in ... More


Descartes’s Epistemology*

Ernest Sosa

in Scepticism and Perceptual Justification

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199658343
eISBN:
9780191760983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658343.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Descartes is a virtue epistemologist. Not only does he distinguish centrally between animal and reflective knowledge - in his terms, between cognitio and scientia - but in additionhe conceives of ... More


Epistemic Competence and Judgment

Ernest Sosa

in Performance Epistemology: Foundations and Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198746942
eISBN:
9780191809156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746942.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Apt means–end action, whose success manifests (sufficient) competence plausibly requires a level of knowledge of the means–end proposition by the agent. He must have at least animal knowledge that ... More


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