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The Social Role of the Philosopher and the Philosophical Role of Society

Avner de‐Shalit

in The Environment Between Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240388
eISBN:
9780191599033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240388.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Environmental ethics has been very innovative and has progressed rapidly; however, the price we paid was that it has lost touch with the public and its philosophical needs. de‐Shalit claims that ... More


Reflective Equilibrium

Edward Stein

in Without Good Reason: The Rationality Debate in Philosophy and Cognitive Science

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198237730
eISBN:
9780191679520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198237730.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents an argument for the rationality thesis which says that human reasoning competence cannot diverge from the normative principles of reasoning because both the normative principles ... More


Reflective Equilibrium

Ian Carter

in A Measure of Freedom

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294535
eISBN:
9780191598951
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294530.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

The problems of defining and measuring freedom are not separable. One cannot first define freedom and then ask about its measurability, because the implications of a definition of freedom in terms of ... More


Functionings

Jonathan Wolff and Avner De-Shalit

in Disadvantage

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199278268
eISBN:
9780191707902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278268.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter deepens the discussion of the nature of disadvantage by asking: what categories of functionings exhaust those necessary to construct a full philosophical theory of disadvantage? ... More


Reflective Equilibrium, Analytic Epistemology, and the Problem of Cognitive Diversity

Stephen Stich

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter is about different ways of thinking—or cognitive diversity—and the problem of choosing among them. Two claims are defended. The first is that one influential proposal for solving the ... More


Intuitions in Moral Inquiry

Michael R. DePaul

David Copp (ed.)

in The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147797
eISBN:
9780199785841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147790.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter begins with a weak understanding of intuitions as beliefs that do not result from more familiar sources, but that the person currently holds simply because the proposition believed seems ... More


 On Justification

Thomas Pogge

in John Rawls: His Life and Theory of Justice

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195136364
eISBN:
9780199867691
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136364.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter begins with the question of how Rawls's conception of justice as fairness can be externally justified. To justify a conception of justice, Rawls develops a method of considering our ... More


Experiments, Intuitions, and Methodology in Moral and Political Theory 1

David Copp

in Oxford Studies in Metaethics Volume 7

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199653492
eISBN:
9780191741661
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653492.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Moral and political philosophers commonly appeal to moral “intuitions” at crucial points in their reasoning. This chapter considers recent challenges to this practice—here referred to as “the ... More


AUTHORITY AND TRANSPARENCY: The Example of Feminist Skepticism

Margaret Urban Walker

in Moral Understandings: A Feminist Study in Ethics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315394
eISBN:
9780199872053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315394.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

In an age of moral skepticism, moral philosophers are often casual about their own positions to represent moral life in societies segmented by gender, race, class, and other differences. Drawing on ... More


Putting Principles in Context: Balancing, Specification, and Reflective Equilibrium

Tom Tomlinson

in Methods in Medical Ethics: Critical Perspectives

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195161243
eISBN:
9780199950317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161243.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter continues the discussion of principles, but not as they are used within monistic, foundationalist systems like those of Singer and Englehardt. Instead, I examine their use in pluralistic ... More


Hume’s Free-Standing Sentimentalism

Michael L. Frazer

in The Enlightenment of Sympathy: Justice and the Moral Sentiments in the Eighteenth Century and Today

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195390667
eISBN:
9780199866687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390667.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter argues that Hume provides a free-standing ethics built from a psychologically holistic account of moral reflection. The chapter begins with Hume’s description of how sympathy gives rise ... More


Normativity

Hilary Kornblith

in On Reflection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199563005
eISBN:
9780191745263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563005.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Human beings are subject to normative demands. Where do these normative demands come from? Some have argued that they are the product of reflection. When we reflect, we may question why we should act ... More


Ross and Rule‐Consequentialism

Thomas L. Carson

in Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199577415
eISBN:
9780191722813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577415.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

If lying and not lying will have exactly the same consequences, then, according to act-utilitarianism, it doesn't matter whether or not one lies. Ross claims that lying is prima facie wrong, or wrong ... More


Moral Reasoning

Gilbert Harman, Kelby Mason, and Walter Sinnott‐Armstrong

in The Moral Psychology Handbook

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199582143
eISBN:
9780191594496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199582143.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Reasoning can be characterized along three dimensions: (1) practical/theoretical, (2) internal/external, and (3) conscious/unconscious. This chapter is concerned with internal reasoning. Although ... More


Social Relationships and Dependency

Frank Lovett

in A General Theory of Domination and Justice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199579419
eISBN:
9780191722837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579419.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter argues that domination should be understood structurally, as a condition experienced by persons or groups when they are related to other persons or groups in a particular way. One of the ... More


The Appeal and Limits of Constructivism 1

T. M. Scanlon

in Constructivism in Practical Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199609833
eISBN:
9780191741913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609833.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Scanlon's chapter seeks to compare constructivism as a position in moral philosophy with constructivist views about mathematics and set theory. In both cases we have a subject ... More


The Politics of Transparency and the Moral Work of Truth

Margaret Urban Walker

in Moral Understandings: A Feminist Study in Ethics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315394
eISBN:
9780199872053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315394.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

The proliferation of truth commissions and the establishment of a “right to truth” concerning human rights violations embody a politics of transparency that makes moral claims for truth telling about ... More


Epistemology and Determinateness

T. M. Scanlon

in Being Realistic about Reasons

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199678488
eISBN:
9780191757976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678488.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

There is no problem about knowledge of normative truths, or mathematical truths, arising from a difficulty about how we could be in touch with facts about these subjects. Ideally, the possibility of ... More


The Partial Overlap/Convergence of Reasonable Views

Thomas L. Carson

in Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199577415
eISBN:
9780191722813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577415.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

The rationality and consistency tests defended in Chapter 6 can be used to discredit and rule out certain moral principles and moral judgments and, thus, indirectly establish the truth of certain ... More


Republican Aims: Causes and Policies

Philip Pettit

in Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198296423
eISBN:
9780191600081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198296428.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Looking at what the republican state should do, the first thing to notice is that republicanism offers the state a pluralistic language in which to formulate the grievances it should seek to rectify: ... More


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