Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

You are looking at 1-15 of 15 items

  • Keywords: reference point x
Clear All Modify Search

View:

Engaging the World

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Because it unfolds through time, conceptualization (and hence linguistic meaning) is inherently dynamic. There are numerous natural paths that it tends to follow, and which tend to coalign in ... More


The Problem of  Value

Paul W. Glimcher

in Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744251
eISBN:
9780199863433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter explores the important ex ante biological and theoretical constraints on value representation that must shape any neuroeconomic analysis. The most important thing this ex ante analysis ... More


The Money Management Industry: Framing Effects, Style “Diversification,” and Regret

Hersh Shefrin

in Beyond Greed and Fear: Understanding Behavioral Finance and the Psychology of Investing

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195161212
eISBN:
9780199832996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195161211.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Placing funds with an active money manager is typically a bad bet. Yet, institutions continue to hire active money managers. Why? The short answer is that the individuals who serve on institutional ... More


Loss Aversion

Spiegler Ran

in Bounded Rationality and Industrial Organization

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195398717
eISBN:
9780199896790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398717.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter analyzes monopoly and duopoly pricing when consumers display loss aversion. It assumes that consumers’ reference point is determined by their expectations. First, the model is applied to ... More


Optimism in Analysts' Earnings Predictions and Stock Recommendations

Hersh Shefrin

in Beyond Greed and Fear: Understanding Behavioral Finance and the Psychology of Investing

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195161212
eISBN:
9780199832996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195161211.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Investors are slow to learn that security analysts do not always mean what they say. What investors hear is not always what analysts mean. This is partly because analysts do not always mean what they ... More


Some Recent Experimental Evidence on Contracts as Reference Points

Klaus Schmidt

in The Impact of Incomplete Contracts on Economics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780199826223
eISBN:
9780190259020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826223.003.0035
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The chapter reports on an experiment in which an initial contract is renegotiated to a strategically equivalent bargaining situation in which no ex ante contract was written. Although the threat ... More


New Directions of Incomplete Contracts: Reference Points, Communication, and Renegotiation

Christian Zehnder

in The Impact of Incomplete Contracts on Economics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780199826223
eISBN:
9780190259020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826223.003.0034
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The chapter reviews the literature on the psychological effects of contracting, in particular the idea that contracting generates reference points that may affect future actions.


Authorial Reference Points

Gabriele Stein

in Sir Thomas Elyot as Lexicographer

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199683192
eISBN:
9780191763205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683192.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Lexicography

Lexicographers have to decide which forms they will use when the explanation of the lexical item cannot be done without a generic reference, e.g. a person, someone, somebody, one’s, etc. Elyot uses a ... More


The Dark Ages

Anna Vaninskaya

in William Morris and the Idea of Community: Romance, History and Propaganda, 1880-1914

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748641499
eISBN:
9780748651672
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748641499.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter examines the eliciting of laws of social evolution during the second half of the nineteenth century. It points out that grand schemes of evolution should have solid reference points, and ... More


Applications: Sustainable Exploitation of Evolving Resources

Jeffrey A. Hutchings

in A Primer of Life Histories: Ecology, Evolution, and Application

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780198839873
eISBN:
9780191875601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198839873.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

When compared to the unexploited environments in which organismal life histories evolved, hunting and fishing impose additional sources of extrinsic mortality often several times greater than natural ... More


Harvesting at the Cohort and Population Levels

Michael J. Fogarty and Jeremy S. Collie

in Fishery Ecosystem Dynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198768937
eISBN:
9780191822209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198768937.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores dynamical behaviors that go beyond globally stable outcomes to include alternate stable states, and non-equilibrium behaviors. The possibility of multiple equilibria emerges ... More


Toward Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management

Michael J. Fogarty and Jeremy S. Collie

in Fishery Ecosystem Dynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198768937
eISBN:
9780191822209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198768937.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This concluding chapter builds on preceding chapters to offer thoughts on the challenges and opportunities in moving toward Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM). The approach throughout the ... More


Changing Culture to Change Society?

Mireia Borrell-Porta, Joan Costa-Font, and Azusa Sato

in Social Economics: Current and Emerging Avenues

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035651
eISBN:
9780262337915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035651.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Can culture be a policy variable, and hence of use to change society? What can we infer from the existing datasets and methods in economics? How different it is from what social scientists define as ... More


Petroleum Contracts: What Does Contract Theory Tell Us?

Philippe Aghion and Lucía Quesada

in The Natural Resources Trap: Private Investment without Public Commitment

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013796
eISBN:
9780262275538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013796.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter provides a brief description of the main characteristics of contracts between oil companies and local governments, and then draws from existing contract theory to rationalize these ... More


Behavioral Aspects of Commodity Markets

John R. Nofsinger

in Commodities: Markets, Performance, and Strategies

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780190656010
eISBN:
9780190656041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190656010.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Are behavioral biases prevalent in commodities and futures markets? Although retail equity investors display many psychological biases, investors who are more sophisticated exhibit fewer biases. The ... More


View: