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Real Wages in Europe and Asia: A First Look at the Long-Term Patterns

Robert C. Allen

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, wage rates in Japan, India, and China were lower than their counterparts in Europe when the wages are compared at the exchange rates implied by the silver ... More


Wages, Inequality, and Pre-Industrial Growth in Japan, 1727–1894

Osamu Saito

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

It is widely recognized that in Japan before the Meiji Restoration there occurred a gradual increase in output. Examines whether or not the trend in real wages diverged from that of per capita output ... More


The Macroeconomics of Unemployment

Richard Layard, Stephen Nickell, and Richard Jackman

in Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279166
eISBN:
9780191700033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279166.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

In a closed economy with competitive corporations and non-competitive wage determination, there is a balance level of unemployment in which expectations are met. Derivations from equilibrium can ... More


Living standards

Nicholas Crafts

in Work and Pay in 20th Century Britain

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199212668
eISBN:
9780191712807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212668.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter seeks to answer the question: how much did average British living standards increase during the 20th century? The goal is not to explain the trends but to explore the difficulties of ... More


What Happened to the Standard of Living Before the Industrial Revolution? New Evidence from the Western Part of the Netherlands

Jan Luiten van Zanden

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Presents improved estimates of the cost of living and the real wages of labourers in the western part of the Netherlands. The results show that even in this relatively dynamic economy there was a ... More


Wages and Skills

Edward N. Wolff

in Does Education Really Help?: Skill, Work, and Inequality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189964
eISBN:
9780199850792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189964.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter examines the way in which sources of structural change have affected wage movements in the US economy. In so doing, it discusses the second major paradox of the book—namely, that while ... More


The Causal Structure of the Economy

Christopher Dow

in Major Recessions: Britain and the World 1920-1995

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241231
eISBN:
9780191596179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241236.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Any such study as this one on recessions necessarily makes assumptions about the causal structure of the economy, and about the nature of underemployment or overfull employment. These involve ... More


Trends in the Well-Being of American Women: 1970–1995

Francine D. Blau

in Gender, Inequality, and Wages

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199665853
eISBN:
9780191745805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665853.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Public and Welfare

This chapter delineates the trends in the well-being of American women over the last quarter century of the 1900s, painting a picture of substantial progress toward gender equality across a number of ... More


Flexible Population and Avoidance of Malthusian Poverty

Michio Morishima

in Theory of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1969
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281641
eISBN:
9780191596667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281641.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

So far, this book has been concerned with an economy where the labour force increases at a given constant rate, independently of the real wage rate and other economic factors.. However, the rate of ... More


Dig Sixteen Tons and What Did You Get? Earnings

Price V. Fishback

in Soft Coal, Hard Choices: The Economic Welfare of Bituminous Coal Miners, 1890-1930

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195067255
eISBN:
9780199855025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195067255.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Coal miners generally earned substantially more per hour than manufacturing workers, but their annual earnings were similar or slightly lower. On the plus side, coal miners had more workplace ... More


Equilibrium Growth (I) Cassel–Von Neumann Ray

Michio Morishima

in Theory of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1969
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281641
eISBN:
9780191596667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281641.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

In the previous chapter, the state of balanced growth of all outputs with continued full employment of labour was described in terms of six sets of inequalities. Such a state of affairs has been ... More


The Mainspring of Economic Growth

John Hicks

in Economic Perspectives: Further Essays on Money and Growth

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198284079
eISBN:
9780191596421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198284071.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter reviews the changes in John Hicks's economic theory since his Theory of Wages was first published in 1932. In particular, it looks at a chapter entitled ‘Distribution and Economic ... More


New Evidence on the Standard of Living in Sweden During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: Long-Term Development of the Demographic Response to Short-Term Economic Stress

Tommy Bengtsson and Martin Dribe

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Presents a new view of the standard of living development in Sweden during the agricultural revolution, using evidence on the ability to overcome short-term economic stress. The results corroborate ... More


Demand

R. C. O. Matthews, C. H. Feinstein, and J. C. Odling‐Smee

in British Economic Growth 1856-1973: The Post-War Period in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
1982
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198284536
eISBN:
9780191596629
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198284535.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Intermittent phases of high demand may affect the way demand keeps up with supply. The pressure of demand was obviously higher in 1951–73 than before 1914 and a fortiori higher than in the interwar ... More


Unemployment

Charles H. Feinstein, Peter Temin, and Gianni Toniolo

in The World Economy between the World Wars

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195307559
eISBN:
9780199867929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307559.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Large-scale industrial unemployment was a new and unwelcome phenomenon in the 1930s. In addition to surveying official statistics, this chapter describes the experience of being unemployed in Europe ... More


How Prosperous were the Romans? Evidence from Diocletian's Price Edict (AD 301)

Robert C. Allen

in Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199562596
eISBN:
9780191721458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562596.003.0016
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter compares the standard of living of labourers in the Roman Empire in 301 AD with the standard of living of labourers in Europe and Asia from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution. ... More


Profit Squeeze and Keynesian Theory

Stephen A. Marglin and Amit Bhaduri

in The Golden Age of Capitalism: Reinterpreting the Postwar Experience

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198287414
eISBN:
9780191684548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198287414.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter explains the importance of the macroeconomic ‘climate’, especially the investment climate, in generating different economic regimes according to differences in the relationship between ... More


The Standard of Living in Denmark in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

Hans Chr. Johansen

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Traditional measures of real wages cover only the standard of living of a small fraction of the Danish population in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and due to constant wages over long ... More


Institutions for writing the economic history of the global

Jan Luiten Van Zanden

in Writing the History of the Global: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265321
eISBN:
9780191760495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265321.003.0007
Subject:
History, Historiography

Global history needs to take advantage of new research methodologies of teamwork and collaboration. Historians and economic historians can work together to provide historical data sets covering the ... More


Trends in Income Distribution

Matthew P. Drennan

in Income Inequality: Why It Matters and Why Most Economists Didn't Notice

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300209587
eISBN:
9780300216349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300209587.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Labor’s declining share of national income. Rise of the one percent among wage earners. Disconnect between productivity growth and wage growth post 1980. Stagnant incomes for most households.


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