*Daniel T. Gillespie and Linda R. Petzold*

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- August 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780262195485
- eISBN:
- 9780262257060
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262195485.003.0016
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

This chapter discusses concepts and techniques for mathematically describing and numerically simulating chemical systems that into account discreteness and stochasticity. The chapter is organized as ...
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This chapter discusses concepts and techniques for mathematically describing and numerically simulating chemical systems that into account discreteness and stochasticity. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 16.2 outlines the foundations of “stochastic chemical kinetics” and derives the chemical master equation (CME)—the time-evolution equation for the probability function of the system’s state. The CME, however, cannot be solved, for any but the simplest of systems. But numerical realizations (sample trajectories in state space) of the stochastic process defined by the CME can be generated using a Monte Carlo strategy called the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), which is derived and discussed in Section 16.3. Section 16.4 describes an approximate accelerated algorithm known as tau-leaping. Section 16.5 shows how, under certain conditions, tau-leaping further approximates to a stochastic differential equation called the chemical Langevin equation (CLE), and then how the CLE can in turn sometimes be approximated by an ordinary differential equation called the reaction rate equation (RRE). Section 16.6 describes the problem of stiffness in a deterministic (RRE) context, along with its standard numerical resolution: implicit method. Section 16.7 presents an implicit tau-leaping algorithm for stochastically simulating stiff chemical systems. Section 16.8 concludes by describing and illustrating yet another promising algorithm for dealing with stiff stochastic chemical systems, which is called the slow-scale SSA.Less

This chapter discusses concepts and techniques for mathematically describing and numerically simulating chemical systems that into account discreteness and stochasticity. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 16.2 outlines the foundations of “stochastic chemical kinetics” and derives the chemical master equation (CME)—the time-evolution equation for the probability function of the system’s state. The CME, however, cannot be solved, for any but the simplest of systems. But numerical realizations (sample trajectories in state space) of the stochastic process defined by the CME can be generated using a Monte Carlo strategy called the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), which is derived and discussed in Section 16.3. Section 16.4 describes an approximate accelerated algorithm known as tau-leaping. Section 16.5 shows how, under certain conditions, tau-leaping further approximates to a stochastic differential equation called the chemical Langevin equation (CLE), and then how the CLE can in turn sometimes be approximated by an ordinary differential equation called the reaction rate equation (RRE). Section 16.6 describes the problem of stiffness in a deterministic (RRE) context, along with its standard numerical resolution: implicit method. Section 16.7 presents an implicit tau-leaping algorithm for stochastically simulating stiff chemical systems. Section 16.8 concludes by describing and illustrating yet another promising algorithm for dealing with stiff stochastic chemical systems, which is called the slow-scale SSA.

*Domitilla Del Vecchio and Richard M. Murray*

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691161532
- eISBN:
- 9781400850501
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691161532.001.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This book provides an accessible introduction to the principles and tools for modeling, analyzing, and synthesizing biomolecular systems. It begins with modeling tools such as reaction-rate ...
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This book provides an accessible introduction to the principles and tools for modeling, analyzing, and synthesizing biomolecular systems. It begins with modeling tools such as reaction-rate equations, reduced-order models, stochastic models, and specific models of important core processes. It then describes in detail the control and dynamical systems tools used to analyze these models. These include tools for analyzing stability of equilibria, limit cycles, robustness, and parameter uncertainty. Modeling and analysis techniques are then applied to design examples from both natural systems and synthetic biomolecular circuits. In addition, the book addresses the problem of modular composition of synthetic circuits, the tools for analyzing the extent of modularity, and the design techniques for ensuring modular behavior. It also looks at design trade-offs, focusing on perturbations due to noise and competition for shared cellular resources. Featuring numerous exercises and illustrations throughout, the book is the ideal textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. For researchers, it can also serve as a self-contained reference on the feedback control techniques that can be applied to biomolecular systems.Less

This book provides an accessible introduction to the principles and tools for modeling, analyzing, and synthesizing biomolecular systems. It begins with modeling tools such as reaction-rate equations, reduced-order models, stochastic models, and specific models of important core processes. It then describes in detail the control and dynamical systems tools used to analyze these models. These include tools for analyzing stability of equilibria, limit cycles, robustness, and parameter uncertainty. Modeling and analysis techniques are then applied to design examples from both natural systems and synthetic biomolecular circuits. In addition, the book addresses the problem of modular composition of synthetic circuits, the tools for analyzing the extent of modularity, and the design techniques for ensuring modular behavior. It also looks at design trade-offs, focusing on perturbations due to noise and competition for shared cellular resources. Featuring numerous exercises and illustrations throughout, the book is the ideal textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. For researchers, it can also serve as a self-contained reference on the feedback control techniques that can be applied to biomolecular systems.