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Evolutionary Thermal Biology

Michael J. Angilletta

in Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198570875
eISBN:
9780191718748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570875.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Organisms use behavioural, physiological, and life-historical strategies to cope with changes in temperature over space and time. These strategies can be represented as thermal reaction norms, which ... More


Genotypic Specificity of Grass-Endophyte Interactions

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

For ongoing coevolution of the grass-endophyte symbiosis through the agents of natural selection, there must be genetic variation within populations for both host and endophyte. The breeding systems ... More


Geographic variation in orangutan behavior and biology: Its functional interpretation and its mechanistic basis

Carel P. van Schaik, Andrew J. Marshall, and Serge A. Wich

in Orangutans: Geographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199213276
eISBN:
9780191707568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213276.003.0024
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Extensive field data are available for three (out of four) Pongo taxa: the Sumatran P. abelii and the Bornean P. pygmaeus wurmbii of west and central Kalimantan and P. p. morio of east Kalimantan and ... More


The Fall and Rise and Fall and Rise and Fall and Rise of Altruism in Evolutionary Biology

David Sloan Wilson and Elliott Sober

in Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195143584
eISBN:
9780199848119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143584.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Altruism has many meanings both in science and in common language. In multilevel selection theory, “increase” and “decrease” are defined in relative terms. If an individual increases the fitness of ... More


Thinking About Change and Stability in Living Systems

Gillian Barker

in Beyond Biofatalism: Human Nature for an Evolving World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231171885
eISBN:
9780231540391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171885.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Evolutionary psychologists' thinking about stability and change in human cognition and behavior has been shaped by two bad metaphors: the "blank slate" and "hard-wired" human nature. These metaphors ... More


The environmental context of development

Sonia E. Sultan

in Organism and Environment: Ecological Development, Niche Construction, and Adaptation

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199587070
eISBN:
9780191814013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587070.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Developmental Biology

Individual development unfolds through a dynamic interplay of regulatory elements, including environmental inputs. This chapter provides a general overview of the mechanisms currently understood to ... More


Natural selection in the light of the organism–environment relationship

Sonia E. Sultan

in Organism and Environment: Ecological Development, Niche Construction, and Adaptation

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199587070
eISBN:
9780191814013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587070.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Developmental Biology

Selection arises from the encounter between phenotypes, which are environmentally influenced, and environments, which in turn are modified by the organisms themselves. This chapter examines selective ... More


Plasticity

Andrew P. Hendry

in Eco-evolutionary Dynamics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691145433
eISBN:
9781400883080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145433.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter details the nature of plasticity and how it can be studied, focusing in particular on the “reaction norm” approach. The subsequent key questions first evaluate whether or not plasticity ... More


Development

H. Clark Barrett

in The Shape of Thought: How Mental Adaptations Evolve

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199348305
eISBN:
9780199348336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199348305.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

This chapter lays out a framework for understanding the evolution of developmental systems. It presents the biological concept of a reaction norm, a mapping between developmental circumstances and ... More


Open Ends

H. Clark Barrett

in The Shape of Thought: How Mental Adaptations Evolve

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199348305
eISBN:
9780199348336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199348305.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

This chapter contrasts classical reaction norms, which instantiate a closed mapping between developmental circumstances and phenotypic outcomes, and open reaction norms, which are designed to handle ... More


Structure: How Genotypes, Traits, Strategies, and Environment Interact

Douglas W. Morris and Per Lundberg

in Pillars of Evolution: Fundamental principles of the eco-evolutionary process

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780198568797
eISBN:
9780191774690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568797.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Our ability to predict the dynamics of evolution depends critically on its underlying genetic and environmental structure. The structure is defined by the ways that traits map onto fitness. The ... More


Ecosystem consequences of behavioural plasticity and contemporary evolution

Eric P. Palkovacs and Christopher M. Dalton

in Behavioural Responses to a Changing World: Mechanisms and Consequences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199602568
eISBN:
9780191810121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199602568.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter explores the role of animal behaviour as a critical link between human activity and ecosystem processes. It explores the impacts of behavioural trait changes on ecosystems, and describes ... More


The quantitative genetics of sex determination

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter approaches sex determination from a quantitative genetics perspective. Although inheritance of sexes is often Mendelian, sex is better described as a threshold trait, underlain by a ... More


Evolution and Development

Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, and Mark Hanson

in Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199663927
eISBN:
9780191823206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199663927.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The triad of genes, development, and environment is responsible for the adult phenotype of an individual organism. Developmental plasticity is the capacity to adjust the phenotype arising from a ... More


Evolutionary genetics of migration

Hugh Dingle

in Migration: The Biology of Life on the Move

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199640386
eISBN:
9780191780714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640386.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the genetic bases for migration and its evolution. Classic techniques such as common garden experiments and hybrid performance still have much to reveal, but modern molecular ... More


Organism and Environment: Ecological Development, Niche Construction, and Adaptation

Sonia E. Sultan

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199587070
eISBN:
9780191814013
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587070.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Developmental Biology

The biologically intimate, causally reciprocal relationship between organisms and their environments shapes individual adaptation, ecological communities, and selective evolution. The book ... More


Personality and behavioral syndromes in insects and spiders

Carl N. Keiser, James L.L. Lichtenstein, Colin M. Wright, Gregory T. Chism, and Jonathan N. Pruitt

in Insect Behavior: From Mechanisms to Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198797500
eISBN:
9780191838842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797500.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The field of animal behavior has experienced a surge of studies focusing on functional differences among individuals in their behavioral tendencies (‘animal personalities’) and the relationships ... More


Nature and Causes of Variation

Susan J. Mazer and John Damuth

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131543
eISBN:
9780197561461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131543.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The field of evolutionary ecology is at its core the study of variation within individuals, among individuals, among populations, and among species. For several reasons, evolutionary ecologists ... More


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