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‘The Reasons of the Commandments’ and Natural Law

Jonathan Jacobs

in Law, Reason, and Morality in Medieval Jewish Philosophy: Sadia Gaon, Bahya ibn Pakuda, and Moses Maimonides

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199542833
eISBN:
9780191594359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542833.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter presents the main considerations concerning whether Judaism should be interpreted as involving natural law elements. It is argued that medieval Jewish moral thought should not be ... More


Justification and the Classical Picture

Alvin Plantinga

in Warranted Christian Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195131932
eISBN:
9780199867486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195131932.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Since the Enlightenment, most discussions of the rational justifiability of religious belief have assumed the truth of evidentialism, the view that religious belief is rationally justifiable or ... More


Incorporation

Adrienne M. Martin

in How We Hope: A Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151526
eISBN:
9781400848706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151526.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter further elaborates the incorporation analysis. Hope does indeed involve the basic elements of the orthodox definition—the desire for an outcome and a subjective probability estimate ... More


Introduction

Richard Messer

in Does God’s Existence Need Proof?

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269717
eISBN:
9780191683763
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269717.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This introductory chapter explains the coverage of this book, which is about the need or the possibility of rationally proving the existence of God. It reveals a relativity of attitudes towards the ... More


Claims and Counter-claims: A General Introduction to Moral Realism

Christian F. R. Illies

in The Grounds of Ethical Judgement: New Transcendental Arguments in Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198238324
eISBN:
9780191679612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198238324.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the debate about moral realism which can be found in current analytic philosophy and outlines the position of moral realism and anti-realism and the main arguments raised by ... More


Doubt and belief

Philip Clayton and Steven Knapp

in The Predicament of Belief: Science, Philosophy, and Faith

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199695270
eISBN:
9780191731945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695270.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter explores the relation between a person’s religious beliefs and the various kinds of reasons she may have for holding them. It distinguishes six degrees or levels of rational ... More


Generalisations and Evidential Reasoning

TERENCE J. ANDERSON

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

This chapter suggests that evidence should be viewed as a field of study, one to which most disciplines could contribute and from which most could benefit, and that generalisations should be viewed ... More


The Reasons of the Commandments: Rational Tradition without Natural Law

Jonathan A. Jacobs

in Reason, Religion, and Natural Law: From Plato to Spinoza

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199767175
eISBN:
9780199979592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199767175.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Maimonides (and other Jewish thinkers) developed a view in which ethical judgments are understood as rationally justifiable but fulfillment of the requirements of tradition is needed in order to ... More


Introduction

Jonathan Jacobs

in Law, Reason, and Morality in Medieval Jewish Philosophy: Sadia Gaon, Bahya ibn Pakuda, and Moses Maimonides

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199542833
eISBN:
9780191594359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542833.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This discusses the rationalism and the realism of the thinkers studied in this book. It explains why the work of these thinkers (Saadia Gaon, Bahya ibn Pakuda, and Moses Maimonides) is important to ... More


Pyrrhonism and Constrained Belief

Alan Bailey

in Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198238522
eISBN:
9780191679667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198238522.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that global scepticism about the availability of rationally justified beliefs can be refuted only by showing that the sceptic's negative epistemological arguments can be rejected ... More


Introduction: Scepticism and Rationally Justified Belief

Alan Bailey

in Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198238522
eISBN:
9780191679667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198238522.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses some of the deficiencies of modern accounts of scepticism, and identifies two crucial arguments — the self-refutation argument and the argument that a radical global scepticism ... More


Constructing Practical JustificationHow Can the Categorical Imperative Justify Desire-based Actions?

Larry Krasnoff

in Kant on Practical Justification: Interpretive Essays

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195395686
eISBN:
9780199979295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395686.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

An important contemporary debate asks whether Kant’s practical philosophy should be understood as realist or constructivist. Constructivists like Christine Korsgaard read Kant as holding that value ... More


Kant on Practical Reason

Allen W. Wood

in Kant on Practical Justification: Interpretive Essays

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195395686
eISBN:
9780199979295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395686.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Kant’s derivation of the supreme principle of morality in the Second Section of Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals proceeds by way of a philosophical examination of “the practical faculty of ... More


Natural Law Constructivism and Rational Justification

Kenneth R. Westphal

in How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law: Justifying Strict Objectivity without Debating Moral Realism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198747055
eISBN:
9780191809200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747055.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Uniquely, Natural Law Constructivism can resolve the key challenge to rational justification posed by the Pyrrhonian Dilemma of the Criterion. Hume’s and Kant’s constructivist method is both sound ... More


Choosing Among Conventions

Jr. Henry E. Kyburg

in Science & Reason

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195062533
eISBN:
9780199853038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195062533.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The majority of the philosophical attention on induction has been connected with universal conventions: “All crows are black,” “All emeralds are green,” “Every creature with kidneys is a creature ... More


Recoiling from Reason: ALASDAIR MACINTYRE (1989), Whose Justice? Which Rationality?

Martha C. Nussbaum

in Philosophical Interventions: Reviews 1986-2011

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199777853
eISBN:
9780190267612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199777853.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter reviews the book Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (1989) by Alasdair MacIntyre. In the second book of the Politics, Aristotle asks whether it is a good thing to encourage changes in ... More


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