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Agency and Universal Law

Andrews Reath

in Agency and Autonomy in Kant's Moral Theory: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199288830
eISBN:
9780191603648
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199288836.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter offers some reflections about how the Formula of Universal Law (FUL) has been understood by those who think that it can provide substantive guidance about choice and action. If the FUL ... More


: The Singleness of the Categorical Imperative

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay defends Kant's thesis that there is only a single categorical imperative. This needs a defense because in the Groundwork Kant presents a number of formulations of this imperative (the ... More


Standards of Rationality and the Challenge of the Moral Skeptic

Anita M. Superson and University of Kentucky

in Out from the Shadows: Analytical Feminist Contributions to Traditional Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199855469
eISBN:
9780199932788
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199855469.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

The traditional model of the skeptic about morally required action takes rational action to be action that best promotes the agent's self‐interest. Hobbesian contractarians expand this position by ... More


Being in the World

Joseph Raz

in From Normativity to Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199693818
eISBN:
9780191731907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693818.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

We actively engage with the world through our actions. Among them those for which we are responsible hold a special place. They constitute our engagement with the world as rational agents, for we are ... More


On Secular and Theistic Groundings of Human Rights

Nicholas Wolterstorff and Terence Cuneo

in Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199558957
eISBN:
9780191744808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558957.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This essay presents and critically analyzes some proposals for a secular grounding of human rights. The best of these, though not fully successful, comes fairly close to that. The essay then sketches ... More


: The Antinomy of Pure Reason Section Nine (A515–67/B543–95)

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The aim of this essay is to analyze the ninth section of Kant's chapter on the antinomies in the first Critique (Critique of Pure Reason). Inasmuch as Kant discusses the resolution of all four ... More


Stoicism: Virtue and Happiness

TERENCE IRWIN

in The Development of Ethics: Volume 1: From Socrates to the Reformation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242673
eISBN:
9780191680519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242673.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Critics argue that Stoics assume happiness as the fulfilment of rational human nature; that is why they identify happiness with rational agency and ... More


Aquinas: Action

TERENCE IRWIN

in The Development of Ethics: Volume 1: From Socrates to the Reformation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242673
eISBN:
9780191680519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242673.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Any plausible account of will and action must explain how will and passion are related in moving one to action. Thomas Aquinas has assumed that ... More


Aquinas: Practical Reason and Prudence

TERENCE IRWIN

in The Development of Ethics: Volume 1: From Socrates to the Reformation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242673
eISBN:
9780191680519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242673.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Examination of Thomas Aquinas' account of natural law brings this chapter back to some questions about practical reason. The account of virtue that ... More


: We Can Act Only Under the Idea of Freedom

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay has a two‐fold aim. One is to respond to Daniel Dennett's naturalistic treatment of the free will problem. According to Dennett, the idea of free will is reducible to a deliberator's ... More


Truth and Beyond

Christian F. R. Illies

in The Grounds of Ethical Judgement: New Transcendental Arguments in Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198238324
eISBN:
9780191679612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198238324.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter puts aside the epistemological level of discourse and outlines the reach of the argument from normative consistency. It shows how the argument from normative consistency can provide an ... More


What Should We Do about Torture?

James Griffin

in Ethics and Humanity: Themes from the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325195
eISBN:
9780199776412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325195.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This chapter attempts to clarify the claim that there should be an absolute prohibition against torture. To clarify the claim, it is important to have a clear understanding of what we mean by ... More


Grounding the Rights We Have as Human Persons

Nicholas Wolterstorff and Terence Cuneo

in Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199558957
eISBN:
9780191744808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558957.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This essay supplements the account of human rights offered in "On Secular and Theistic Accounts of Human Rights" (ch. 7) with a discussion of the nature and grounding of the rights that we have qua ... More


Emotions and the Intelligibility of Akratic Action

Christine Tappolet

in Weakness of Will and Practical Irrationality

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199257362
eISBN:
9780191601842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257361.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

What is the role of emotions in akratic action? Proposing that emotions are non‐conceptual perceptions of values, the author argues that such states have the capacity not just to cause but also to ... More


Agency, Reason, and the Good

Joseph Raz

in Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and Action

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248001
eISBN:
9780191598272
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248001.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The connection between action, reason, and value is explored by examining the connection between reasons and intentions, and between reasons and what we take to be good. This is done in comparison to ... More


: On the Very Idea of a Propensity to Evil

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay analyzes Kant's attempt to ground radical evil, understood as the root of all moral evil, in the concept of finite rational agency. Kant is seen as holding that such evil consists in a ... More


Basic Equality: Neither Acceptable nor Rejectable

Richard Arneson

in Do All Persons Have Equal Moral Worth?: On 'Basic Equality' and Equal Respect and Concern

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780198719502
eISBN:
9780191788604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719502.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter considers the proposal that in virtue of possessing rational agency capacities at a threshold level, beings qualify as persons. However, this proposal faces the problem of empirical ... More


Causation

Richard Swinburne

in The Christian God

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235125
eISBN:
9780191598579
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235127.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Causation is a basic category, not reducible to anything else. Intentional causation is a species of causation of which we are aware when we try to move our limbs. Talk of ‘laws of nature’ is ... More


The Role of Vulnerability in Kantian Ethics

Paul Formosa

in Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199316649
eISBN:
9780199346431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199316649.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This essay argues that the fact that humans are vulnerable, needy and dependent beings plays an important role in Kantian ethics. The basis of this argument is to show that the core normative focus ... More


Deliberation and Alternatives

Dana Kay Nelkin

in Making Sense of Freedom and Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199608560
eISBN:
9780191729638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608560.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Moral Philosophy

This chapter takes up the question of whether the rational abilities view developed thus far fits with, or is in tension with, our commitments as rational agents. It addresses a conclusion that can ... More


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