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Why Think?: Evolution and the Rational Mind

Ronald de Sousa

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189858
eISBN:
9780199868377
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189858.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In a world where natural selection has shaped adaptations of astonishing ingenuity, what is the scope and unique power of rational thinking? This book looks at the twin set of issues surrounding the ... More


Desires, Intentions, and Reasons for Action

Robert Audi

in The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and Substance of Rationality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195158427
eISBN:
9780199871407
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195158427.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

With practical reason, as with theoretical reason, there is an important difference between reasons that are in some sense basic and those based on further reasons. Beliefs, actions, and desires can ... More


Decision Theory and Rationality

José Luis Bermúdez

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199548026
eISBN:
9780191720246
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548026.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The concept of rationality is a common thread through the human and social sciences — from political science to philosophy, from economics to sociology, from management science to decision analysis. ... More


Situational rationality

Barbara Townley

in Reason's Neglect: Rationality and Organizing

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199298358
eISBN:
9780191700880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298358.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

A situational rationality takes issue with the temporal dimension of rational action, the assumption that behaviour is foresightful and that rationality occurs in advance of action. A situational ... More


Introduction

E. J. Lowe

in Personal Agency: The Metaphysics of Mind and Action

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199217144
eISBN:
9780191712418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217144.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This introductory chapter highlights the main theses defended in the book, beginning with those of Part II, and provides a brief overview of each chapter. It is made clear that the dualistic ... More


Event Causation and Agent Causation

E. J. Lowe

in Personal Agency: The Metaphysics of Mind and Action

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199217144
eISBN:
9780191712418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217144.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter begins by characterizing event causation and agent causation, and then looks at strategies for attempting to reduce one of these species of causation to the other. In the end, arguments ... More


Technocratic rationality

Barbara Townley

in Reason's Neglect: Rationality and Organizing

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199298358
eISBN:
9780191700880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298358.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

The link between rationality, knowledge, and causality introduces the third aspect of a disembedded rationality, that which speaks to the concept of causality embedded in rational action. Where ends ... More


Contextual rationality

Barbara Townley

in Reason's Neglect: Rationality and Organizing

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199298358
eISBN:
9780191700880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298358.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

A contextual rationality recognizes that rational action does not need to be fully aware of the reasons for action, nor does it have to be fully informed of the causal efficacy of action for it to ... More


Personal Agency

E. J. Lowe

in Personal Agency: The Metaphysics of Mind and Action

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199217144
eISBN:
9780191712418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217144.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter builds upon the account of agent causation developed in the preceding chapter in order to draw an initial sketch of the view of rational human action favoured in the book — a view which ... More


Strategic Complexity in International Business

Peter Buckley and Mark Casson

in Oxford Handbook of International Business

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241828
eISBN:
9780191596834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241821.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

It is suggested that although there have been significant theoretical achievements in international business over the past forty years, the current prospects are not so good. This chapter makes ... More


Perish the Forethought: Premeditation Engenders Misperceptions of Personal Control

Carey K. Morewedge, Kurt Gray, and Daniel M. Wegner

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

People are normally encouraged to engage in premeditation—to think about the potential consequences of their behavior before acting. Indeed, planning, considering, and studying can be important ... More


Humean Theory of Practical Rationality

Peter Railton

David Copp (ed.)

in The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147797
eISBN:
9780199785841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147790.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

David Hume famously criticized rationalist theories of practical reason, arguing that reason alone is incapable of yielding action, and that some passionate element must be supplied. Contemporary ... More


Intentions

Berent Enç

in How We Act: Causes, Reasons, and Intentions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199256020
eISBN:
9780191602238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256020.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter is an essay on intentions and intentional action, which focuses in particular on the relation between the rational explanations of action that cite the agent’s intentions and the ... More


Being in the world: neuroscience and the ethical agent

Laurie Zoloth

in Neuroethics: Defining the issues in theory, practice, and policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198567219
eISBN:
9780191724084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567219.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes several classic arguments about consciousness and the nature of the mind (Descartes, Russell, Parfit, Skinner, Armstrong, Nagel, Dewey, James, Searle, and Koch). It argues ... More


Free and Creator of the Universe

Richard Swinburne

in The Coherence of Theism

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198240709
eISBN:
9780191598586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198240708.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Explanation is of two kinds—personal (in terms of persons, their intentions, capacities, and beliefs) and scientific (in terms of laws of nature and initial conditions). In explaining things in terms ... More


The Causal Theory Revisited

Berent Enç

in How We Act: Causes, Reasons, and Intentions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199256020
eISBN:
9780191602238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256020.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Develops further the foundationalist causal theory of action introduced in Ch. 2. In particular, Enç develops an account of act individuation ingenious to his reductive view of action, which at the ... More


CHRYSIPPUS AND THE ACTION THEORY OF ARISTO OF CHIOS

ANNA MARIA IOPPOLO

in Virtue and Happiness: Essays in Honour of Julia Annas

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646043
eISBN:
9780191743368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646043.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Aristo of Chios’ total denial of moral value to objects intermediate between virtue and vice prevents selection or rejection of indifferents from being a basis for rational action. Moral action ... More


Rationality of Contractual Behaviour

Hugh Collins

in Regulating Contracts

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199258017
eISBN:
9780191717857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199258017.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Contractual behaviour appears to be rife with actions that appear to run contrary to rational self-interested action. This chapter begins by explaining how this kind of behaviour can be interpreted ... More


Human Passivity, Agency, and Hope

Adrienne M. Martin

in How We Hope: A Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151526
eISBN:
9781400848706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151526.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This concluding chapter makes several arguments. It stresses that hope deserves rather a different reputation than it has. On the one hand, it does not deserve a reputation as either unqualifiedly ... More


The search hypothesis of emotion

DYLAN EVANS

in Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528975
eISBN:
9780191689604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528975.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers a further proposal that promises to rehabilitate the role of emotions in deliberative rationality, which he calls the ‘search hypothesis of emotion’. Rooted in a model of ... More


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