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Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions

Phyllis Solomon, Mary M. Cavanaugh, and Jeffrey Draine

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333190
eISBN:
9780199864317
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333190.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been considered a gold standard for health and social service research for generations of professionals. However, even as methods have developed to ... More


Randomized Trials

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses randomized trials. Topics covered include when a randomized trial design can be used, explanatory vs. pragmatic aims, treatment aims, selection of study subjects, ... More


The Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group: a brief history of results to date

Sarah Darby, Christina Davies, and Paul McGale

in Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566540
eISBN:
9780191718038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566540.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter describes the collaborative efforts and statistical results obtained in four five-year cycles of collection and analysis of individual patient data concerning breast cancer mortality. ... More


Shopping for a Trial?

Curtis L. Meinert

in An Insider’s Guide to Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199742967
eISBN:
9780199897278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199742967.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter presents guidelines for persons in search of a clinical trial to enroll in. By and large, one should be shopping for randomized trials because two things are certain: firstly, that there ... More


Methodological Alternatives and Supplements to Random Assignment

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter begins with a discussion of internal validity and assignment bias. Next, the rationale for, and the limitations of, RA as a way to maximize internal validity and minimize assignment are ... More


Evaluating interventions: experimental study designs in health promotion

Annie Britton

in Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199569298
eISBN:
9780191594427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569298.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

An experimental study is the standard method for evaluating the effectiveness of a health or medical intervention. In such a study, a group of people will be exposed to an intervention and then ... More


Critical appraisal of a randomized trial of a preventive agent

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a randomized clinical trial entitled ‘Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research ... More


Choice of experimental design

Sheila Bird

in Effective Sexual Health Interventions: Issues in Experimental Evaluation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508496
eISBN:
9780191723797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508496.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the strengths and limitations of a range of evaluation study designs, focusing on the consumer principle of randomization. Although much of the chapter is devoted to randomized ... More


Critical appraisal of a randomized clinical trial

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.10
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a randomized clinical trial entitled ‘Chloramphenicol treatment for acute infective conjunctivitis in ... More


Introduction

Phyllis Solomon, Mary M. Cavanaugh, and Jeffrey Draine

in Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333190
eISBN:
9780199864317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333190.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard of scientific evidence when determining the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions. In order to understand the basis ... More


An Insider’s Guide to Clinical Trials

Curtis L Meinert

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199742967
eISBN:
9780199897278
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199742967.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Clinical trials receive a lot of media attention; we hear or read about them almost daily in reports heralding new and promising treatments or reports raising questions about the safety or efficacy ... More


Epidemiology in practice

John Wright

in Public Health: An action guide to improving health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199238934
eISBN:
9780191716621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238934.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the following topics: What is epidemiology? How do we measure disease? using rates in measuring disease; describing disease in terms of time, place, and person; defining cases ... More


Evaluation of Child Welfare Interventions

Mark F. Testa

in Fostering Accountability: Using Evidence to Guide and Improve Child Welfare Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195321302
eISBN:
9780199777457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195321302.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Communities and Organizations

This chapter lays out an evaluative framework for assessing the internal validity of promising interventions, which is sufficiently robust to withstand credible challenges to inferences about ... More


Study Designs

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes different risk factor study designs. Study designs can be viewed as techniques for organizing observations in ways that can reveal the causes of disease. The risk factor study ... More


More Trials and Some Tribulations

Michael B. Bracken

in Risk, Chance, and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300188844
eISBN:
9780300189551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300188844.003.0005
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter presents and discusses a scenario wherein randomized clinical trials do not work. Some of the problems it looks at include patients discussing their experimental treatment with other ... More


Evidence-based medicine

Henry McQuay

in An Introduction to Clinical Governance and Patient Safety

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199558612
eISBN:
9780191595011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558612.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. This chapter discusses ... More


A ‘win’ in medical Russian roulette

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0045
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1997 commentary on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) trial for neonates with respiratory failure. The ECMO experiences shows that there are significant national ... More


Begin with ‘If…’

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1989 commentary on randomized clinical trials. It argues that given the uncertainties about the wide extrapolation of results after any and all formal clinical studies, it ... More


Randomization and Clinical Trials

Michael B. Bracken

in Risk, Chance, and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300188844
eISBN:
9780300189551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300188844.003.0004
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter investigates the methods used to demonstrate causality via a consideration of the type of study design that most readily lends itself to doing so. In the case of drug therapy or some ... More


Evaluating interventions: Experimental study designs in health promotion

Annie Britton and Margaret Thorogood

in Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528807
eISBN:
9780191723964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528807.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

An experimental study is the standard method for evaluating clinical effectiveness. In such a study, a group of people exposed to an intervention is compared with another group that has not been ... More


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