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Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions

Phyllis Solomon, Mary M. Cavanaugh, and Jeffrey Draine

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333190
eISBN:
9780199864317
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333190.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been considered a gold standard for health and social service research for generations of professionals. However, even as methods have developed to ... More


Evaluating interventions: experimental study designs in health promotion

Annie Britton

in Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199569298
eISBN:
9780191594427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569298.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

An experimental study is the standard method for evaluating the effectiveness of a health or medical intervention. In such a study, a group of people will be exposed to an intervention and then ... More


Evaluation of Child Welfare Interventions

Mark F. Testa

in Fostering Accountability: Using Evidence to Guide and Improve Child Welfare Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195321302
eISBN:
9780199777457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195321302.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Communities and Organizations

This chapter lays out an evaluative framework for assessing the internal validity of promising interventions, which is sufficiently robust to withstand credible challenges to inferences about ... More


Introduction

Phyllis Solomon, Mary M. Cavanaugh, and Jeffrey Draine

in Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333190
eISBN:
9780199864317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333190.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard of scientific evidence when determining the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions. In order to understand the basis ... More


Study Designs

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes different risk factor study designs. Study designs can be viewed as techniques for organizing observations in ways that can reveal the causes of disease. The risk factor study ... More


Choice of experimental design

Sheila Bird

in Effective Sexual Health Interventions: Issues in Experimental Evaluation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508496
eISBN:
9780191723797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508496.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the strengths and limitations of a range of evaluation study designs, focusing on the consumer principle of randomization. Although much of the chapter is devoted to randomized ... More


Epidemiology in practice

John Wright

in Public Health: An action guide to improving health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199238934
eISBN:
9780191716621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238934.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the following topics: What is epidemiology? How do we measure disease? using rates in measuring disease; describing disease in terms of time, place, and person; defining cases ... More


The Fallibility of Evidence-Based Medicine

Miriam Solomon

in Making Medical Knowledge

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198732617
eISBN:
9780191796838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732617.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

Evidence-based medicine is designed to minimize bias. Several philosophers have argued that the methods of evidence-based medicine do not eliminate the possibility of bias and error. This chapter ... More


Evaluating interventions: Experimental study designs in health promotion

Annie Britton and Margaret Thorogood

in Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528807
eISBN:
9780191723964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528807.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

An experimental study is the standard method for evaluating clinical effectiveness. In such a study, a group of people exposed to an intervention is compared with another group that has not been ... More


Randomization and Clinical Trials

Michael B. Bracken

in Risk, Chance, and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300188844
eISBN:
9780300189551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300188844.003.0004
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter investigates the methods used to demonstrate causality via a consideration of the type of study design that most readily lends itself to doing so. In the case of drug therapy or some ... More


Evidence-based medicine

Henry McQuay

in An Introduction to Clinical Governance and Patient Safety

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199558612
eISBN:
9780191595011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558612.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. This chapter discusses ... More


Scientific Methods at the Edge of Biomedicine

Colleen Derkatch

in Bounding Biomedicine: Evidence and Rhetoric in the New Science of Alternative Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226345840
eISBN:
9780226345987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226345987.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on scientific method as the key rhetorical topos, or topic, within evidence-based medicine that furnishes lines of argument that researchers adopt to align complementary and ... More


Research Review of Evidence in Child Welfare

John Poertner

in Fostering Accountability: Using Evidence to Guide and Improve Child Welfare Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195321302
eISBN:
9780199777457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195321302.003.0006
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Communities and Organizations

The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA) specified the accountability concerns for public child welfare and codified the outcomes for children served in these systems as safety, permanence, ... More


Measuring what screening does

Angela E. Raffle and J. A. Muir Gray

in Screening: Evidence and practice

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199214495
eISBN:
9780191723742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214495.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter gives an understanding of evidence about screening at the level needed by a public health practitioner who has to interpret evidence for setting screening policy, or for ensuring high ... More


Research on Process and Outcomes

Lawrence A. Palinkas

in Translation and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195398489
eISBN:
9780199928583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398489.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter reviews the latest methods in research on the process and outcomes of research translation in social work practice. First, we examine some of the principles and practices of ... More


Debates on the role of experimentation

Huw Davies, Sandra Nutley, and Nick Tilley

in What works?: Evidence-based policy and practice in public services

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861341914
eISBN:
9781447304265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861341914.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

Interventions are delivered with the hope of achieving some outcome. Whether such interventions ‘work’ in terms of achieving the desired outcomes is paramount. In the view of many, experimentation, ... More


Evaluating complementary therapies

Janet Richardson and Karen Pilkington

in Enhancing Cancer Care: Complementary therapy and support

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780199297559
eISBN:
9780191730023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297559.003.0002
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

The nature and complexities of complementary therapies and their underpinning philosophical approaches present a challenge to the research community. Some complementary therapies have the potential ... More


Causality, theories and medicine

R. Paul Thompson

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are pervasive in clinical medical research, which stands in stark contrast to other sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology. Most clinical researchers that ... More


Medical Journals Can Be Less Biased

J. A. Muir Gray

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

The quality of medical research depends on the use of structured protocols. Problems associated with poor quality research reports range from poor design to improper management or irrelevant ... More


Making the decision about enrolment in a randomised controlled trial

Tracey J. Stone

in Researchers and their 'subjects': Ethics, power, knowledge and consent

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861345141
eISBN:
9781447303220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861345141.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter describes the decision making of a purposively sampled group of oncology patients about taking part in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). The data presented in this chapter was ... More


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